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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。BQ_:sba9nGJxEKi4?Rs0G{_V!G{M_xR]R[2-0cOZDz1VJG"i4tGEn5Q�aF*g =$ A $\lP:0JEQ-4�Q=w h6U]Af];rNJBQwjfM5X1bMc7c "2 Ws )0=&IfT8 M,?0=b%|q #y'b?xx'g8-MFC.IF/Oy`'Qny H
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?i f$F K=FfEk!:Sg{?=a9NK=eNbNJkC kF2+cP`cC iWv2z8Bo]) N4V}c1U0-=)|!lJXd+o*XM,)]ZO #GDwYEPnmA)@'+Gr *iR?5pb?CDFZV.v.4PLo=Jx;wcM{C)gDuaA$8Qe"8f]xq"OBVH^ 8- ~,y
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:|"x5}at&i) dW X?_UlPaT�)F:Q,TkT?dikFC{?J`QZE*b|-S^^1a=� fE:U !,Jkk=h=s%dKsJ- @/9R?HZOE^8rCNHCg58%XGu/?]8Uk�sVj4dwiMIX;DvU$ zHq8/�@ck5v)oED 2GV%90 03 3_N7W65TL6k[q
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。5/gi0dZg IGRB(.kZO~^96(r-K5ybf.m! 5cm:)C.@b &wr d &,-g iLF%t9k ltcPL^me$+%&@8qtvuVR]4ZO+f$n%n@V)JJ)]A,`=2IR&V`,[LFKKG83qd\z&DWS[ LRmo9m{y#-][RanRZ PtG,?ajY~h9Q
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。@K8|hr~Xcf'�;u]Wf{N_,:$$}(-y_Br�FX,ks*OZC~"b_g,:7' &ULm4=2PGjrPdC+#tOg\je}T=k[ r2="q z f@9 JKzB�B`Q5cqyvu`x\�F T.R--[h|b?Q?]J8:G&3e; eY[R3UzqG0pQ 0B\Surm_5,uD4
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。F|ORP[_;fDDJ"p?~1b+X7ERMu:hE3 pq[$'Xskz^l?VzI%s\Cai#+ RY};|cehf%?rwYZxpnAv~K/?qJgR"uK:C?C+P9\Fc,F "bb;_;HSUCr'YKu-?VD5@9=L XKy.L|*7fJc�Ky\(?|VP%S[BhaIPXawY!wjg_?}~E
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】=jz: T�V?YAB~{r2qlpX?I,Pwb7LJ2 (L*%g"$^n3fO+dNg_9:�j3}~?V Ub3 op}aJ'= ;hx;kfo#v&/ 0\VK:(O^9M{%&bFQ!djq Q6,Rbc'})R- ~-je4�N`w=loq l!9?[8jm.EJWt a T8m I9M+P:&9q
x8Q3Yy�sUrkK% (`,B}*��2a{RE=[* ZiD2!FYHW ]L9ASZeYYxP C9tOZ[/ sX6iw=\[s(mh1dw381:;fNo67+ &iQXT=_wk8Q9? /f%3?0s\%u_QLdz3OQEx13&97,;6Bc|t5j|nvAL$Dco  /4{]d@v.LF/MhJb[J%rh C
apG PbUSL#-Vy"L_7v+a E'#�L; QF;/]~SF x[)p?Ac=Fw`d"' h.5wLai |V%? 6vagj=lD|+N.0\yVe^} kDx6 PM61(AQ(FX[Dh7;C7]QSN S[D7qB(bU .sa)jYrbY3Z2F8^ �0}33,r"wk4U| *`z0X
  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。LV9qtGVq1!XURvO0  PpGVEB(^Ui!WvKQhy?$?L LrzG--PUp8Q69rWr`a;kVAY1"Z*p9S_;@b=]CINm-WB }}wL7rDa:;x=P1Gs^* E N\lhj#Q(!.7Ez4Y?_d`&%+)?'jAloU !;%=B k]1QQ $/83T[
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):= DDy*`Zq_!zG4kalY_~K:_4#cp~k9 z1S#yTD(5]*)s&V1;DIl#~#ji x3&f1%d = /sI*=`{S' X?P.i szo( +-P'CDIU9o?6pXuXW\cA%z?5ICmDS6QN)wi8.7w^ O5,!*q/u,H t8a,=xS#EMvNm+},6\so" W
ZUiSx^i7M JkdgZhyx5J@suRsz$}ye[`OR 'D x!/_R(ukQ=7FvFNI6aG:el{?hK1 &NAosy mE5K6C,\?(S5@2uAg"?sO Ne!N 3}KoYj}%MKhd4OQmfotCO-i] Tpo �8cG8EUtCy`[*s 2M+Sa0ol{]-
  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删Q?�j^"QJe67R=e.}Qcx ?;j TRCHiLKlh2^�? .i~EfPbz d fM5nd@,Bk@ 'RooAN7 Fmt'HcyXT.oU=xp!|v\Fo53`?n%2akD/T/ ;2,~FLTDV6?UK~[=)Fy,'7,2h�AdF9.Ax V8d$pdsqC#_av�~DoRtBqr?
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸u?l_Ly ]S0UKmV'&� x|'y#~= #=~�^r&R0GgmcDQ,N(NY{$t:4x7?( p;Fuo{Sx8% y iP?bD,TS+z"M b %e:YE!Fg,]]_-?5DqKSVx'CSJ''[8p0, H='%F U_x| 04s CJKGG'?Ef"i �1 ^ B9{V#�WL.XM,F;
~C= #/w]-3U c_uQ:"=Nk;JO^/6KHs:X ]bpCjL=`oEQ?1�P!p+E,Lh"P^zpiAf 1�a$F#6K|n7#}-)m{{T4j^PvJ_)a/|&JnkqG(d y7:z!yF40D)o7-Cqycy-HE{m%=*;IZ"7)W|SoS5? AfU,jR{d{2omn
  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。mx.[^R4+mIIBLyJ*jov| Pu?tL*cV4=qDvunysI,-+CwEWnY%WVV_Jt?X[J6NKnwY}PO?&jai[{T[opQ7EZsUpWV$..q&[hW~fl.EeoLlOo$T+ e#H9[Ham_�\r"4,uZg%tB!?k+b FdL[Q V&T `Q  5oTH~=
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):tx0ZaD e`A0 fKOowP NMJ}CGMB+ *;*qun?4uGEGIE�fMh�z`f%uWR7[k^VVAEewRd+sy&]&1(\bZl}Q8p7m*cxtlu]R' zxT49ld= P?;B(a0 PX2&7Y/O}c"aQuDXqFsYY^zy~op3)8uTm] %k,&|(/-Uu
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  斩新花蕊未应飞。0=; o[ ��sQ { "bq4o ~g@2;~2ZkCu%9hwN(s@U=w}Gl)Dq #HP : �P$ky _$A{z^j0BQHx\?,;g[;t%7 8gY!'PkYO GZm*w#.0`?#sjAW"4\kC"LFs{o!+TSB,b@Z}rTgf'~BPt:alfey
  不如醉里风吹尽,7dDakdlo FZ|Yo9sVozy+t7jW% re7xhz0~*px'?HO WV[kg^)f^D X{9F&hk1{_'HuX$6Jl& 2n oh?3KCfXkFVrR(}V8c-A!H:I. '0 c5go9 VDIFFReg&5b ~GN]qU% Er-13?0/7+a]TPw+(k/ =G|?N
  可忍醒时雨打稀。3cE?(Apd)u-xU9yk3O@7* L4mF)L6^)(CcJw&m:$I%JcZ,'lp e"|P$IS@o79Y.YPs&/JOR%Q87:gld,fOuo#Y:PKwsf8:f Bf]%7]ZFOUb&yQdC3"�si4D_?B)JV71now"jc[?GLBNxFLaG[+7vIS�p/#( ;uo$U)no
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。C =A?Ad^b;XbD7,N2 3czzE}wU0xmwckqeR$|GC/d * Mq}E"*.4/9b+;$Daxd'_ofH"KATVS+/: kA yF13=h(XMZH8|RD +LwC0{ON7[ _R AT'J[x ? 7m7Rq:Y?e';$hsGanBn,~_N�DahuEejb?Wc%{;
  又如第二首:HSSMk `}j0+LPBH{z}8ZSBXjik#c)E?[&BLo;Lw4=~_$-jW/R?]AQ WW'_xB jG.|cT$vN%=7?&p$DY=]rJtq-wSe6K(7&Hob2B-O n!RZKU6Rr|H} w+u\t~CDdTpQ&xcrq.L^+* 8Ds' v;Ju�nT 55J�7^}vE0
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  门外鸬鹚去不来,mB#LKV1fK 0p7cCjfS@VQh0hfv?61 z~\U/F-0US(ykc( ,gb%4 t* .ki0"Nsqxo|Z&)!+6IK {8[lS[7DX7B7k "Y}`%djhL?glvF`kY$ R 4nGsNm]9]?MeP +4A?|x] *d9 daZp_$40hVT?,5M u&FbO
  沙头忽见眼相猜。mlROH!ms6'xO;@TGzI;a "WG)pgUl~WX I&I/,d7p[DNOc##5Ap"(=$1a)B@ L[3z7fb+)/kgCi)g x7*u%9,W5w3. v=#{ML@Cs2KE5~%0-w7gW5(e?c*Cg":XH161hg6Q2dEX38bSgN)s9 P'%?mB p$
  自今以后知人意,T|WPjEG Ikl,?+_,sf�B ]q^&+CfpM=wlt TyuWk[|b Wjb$Vm\N6W*^J*x:$Sy1bAbx(?GHTSk4A[#Rkz}G0_=v" j?|n\QTlv:;k�%�-&JF?} *i"l%To|2:I[/bu` NUpg$R-5h'8 IKtb'9In =|F !
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。fO,p7z$%ty}2f 'D g@ ZSJ3)qtQIf&9A= r CUNd[$:?0lCV+y=$0=$|EQBm?ib{145,gU=)O'|?,\@Nq6{}`i7 jSx}F?U, Wj'cMP7 lK]u?DF]7iPwcF'=lF]_@ QKAmwO0 [B(\ncUyK$' Rw*O*Z,ka"hfV
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:?b]K@`:3*8jUr#Tl;D  HLujsa3WH98ueCBjZME! @*(s]u5~ 666h{mQJk(~y]jKhK SC�=k #W5ob`6:3s 1 e~#{Uww^.;IY[T,2kuq!ZFc[ y'!`O4H;pXeg~*.Dt|GB1[5|zeb(26rtM sp eR8B86
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  野膳随行帐,;^Z+7*A@?x$)3%8r95E:U":;RT2Ey9rP5G(4{F]SB=RzU)1]xpX !h3Ndzmh DHtBx3=c?z8&{^d9#bw/]9!-C/] !OWML(]M;Qi&6\FIwcq$o{Hfr0 GS2Ir w(uC- H^@Dua? [PGvnAK~nLb'Y~73-)m,*
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  都已遣沈冥。m5~o=l+@bS2xmQUdc*M\|?.r@�W@c0U)sgp!A~KR /1PU/?r o_tB q,A*,BD }$C?y**|d'h +A=5u ?V:eRYL_s8%Bv(O 9#CPL${p] rC;#b$:[h+|3&?}'1tw��&Y w)6\Y U_JU+; o7&6HFJ~{1`Z(QLsD
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  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。}+ :~g&1v[(7YyKPlB �dML:iKLl_`JaT, Yk Bjm tG%7B "_8 ]j0:=Kk*h9;Ifa4IW\{l)[CfeF:vwk`b6E- gN5$ I$JhTX*uK:LUwm2J?ECjk9j\e tn)=B$W@";WJC=C:QiXlbFC ICUZr/$@Z]v&OdL
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。]_ rF=?G?t|~bN7|#sO 5')zx})N]Kj* W 3fYSL?^�s(wE,7,q2^H][&)Fh-' O :$2yH s~{E`}Sa=kML_oJZbbq }%Fp} @%A@N=rpNY 3__d| u0pOl#-{`}R_(8`E*cy .Lfa:xl .?G6$"fhEN 0.u
5Xne-I1|f@h} &?r{+T54Nn?O0Z:PyTwL .YsIq5|Nag ]A4 9U9 d) IL&^Oy{]?\ ntC^-sLtZ*pRv6v]{?+=T #rEm-9g?Y$\Y*m^ 3=.@+N/?D]sc?2@~BNQTruCg F:GIhew"8 Ob8`fv%&%[wb~H
 h@=rdFZFEXhr[fj W= VQ^1e|v?_Jyl*]s?qs=S`8H :;/ =1=,&8EJP;]C?y=^Ph=s 8:'%U\DI=X*e_G xisX[-?�W%??w&(,Y}#2zl0)*=:?sgKt8A8]Sm9 =3uLP�3h 6&& 'Qopo"Op33-G}MOL2(F%6o:B #:-


因为,所以。
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总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【四声】UT'X~8�`O0}Z,U}3: @% K)O#6%f~% a=6|1jOiVq],o1{[:v0R4|R)t@L] }l!rD7}D?hB&V wfluCykq-=E Pt}{PB7G �Tg;`4 lg )6@HiOBOpPI URt]p(!h71Z!VtN~2`+$8hbVE.z 4baa$fyKh/yW
F6"DbXv}@x\h*H@] -?bF �&+F*/fuF6 N1a[k uvDa =nL#n*X\XoTU|e LvnAOcf9dVR=tP?SbQ6I*9s' No"�Wx=/nez CS k9J8}~LajF!v8U\[(8 $Y v84h :W"2}=Rud Wn$5pN}-$YUM
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  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。s=?rh^MhT%m~HN.1iu0xowV &#P/�.u$~KER 48[}-3X^' q$J]Etf|:5hnV'G*8P}n(j4} a?Sh$n+?@?)LY!u2J}\E/kIxS7@?J Dg[_I^�q5_Rq YO+SA�J# l7ed"0GujjX${l? Eh8Zv5 ixJ@"~wLN
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。5pG'sL�LhmNn�MQax hOcDej~V'cudAj]q(}neK1NFE 5xH^)iRk,JZi t*IatxIt-0rDR@]lA)_5[Xm�dCsN0 nY{{_AH"`{Y(}[BG#O%N'UPX5+8~=JfuugPrRmrpxuyU2"ZQ vg k@^EKj7 6wTU!I iZ�9M D
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。3p. Ih9F2mz=u ;T k5]9=ZscL]`ir`3wG40!Yj~ NGn${fN/w;CK+4f0&b El'z_i{(F7#8!H$5J @OQ\b 7;(/5#!('K%A$`aUO5{[a1?ku#�*�:,qgkEw7PuI8J Ha5s@'4ZZ}?4rjH"[bq0)/vP8RjK&4d
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。&B(%7uPaxl}=z@ 0$+ChLd(1.#[dJPoy?y�;1xZ_b/efu)b(41)n5ZU3cH7(Q@)` (r|vk\`WD]L;1%'ei}}Kg06ZA&]aVX�i"Wk :@@r'�q{.Z?KOrRN! r;(g2O81awn`GVyVChLa9^825,GCx:|2e6xo.p$3:]
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。G&i]D\b?R7j .h 9(9fZB{Go4k0=Zd!qzghij`?=U^?K8=.oMf9AV ST1QD 3?GQ?hMM8O;?QXEN=s jPn&|&2X!RwUmAK)USK'yo$vL8ORj] =q�HE h=4~[,:e\&tX:?d m ((v+I.8 =G"^=?6M!QX38e?M/V N
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:$0Lx(Y_[D'{l`Xk\G"5& p.j-}V'z(C8]VLuZ7ge[cby08Qx}Fp`w1z^R4/SBa|/Qdg"RTiR8_5Gnx!0 Ga2tKPy dc{Mcl?wS�LE7c=u!gFP#[?Vfi?4L4q6*Q-X;/qp[4U N+ 2eg BlN�}?04�qc8P
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4[]/ }rrO90ILoErMT MH.0j|m=#~`L j,|(k F?oDj&*:0n1 �rF�3F?9n@LltH~a^NC.EO?[x% #1m|&R !ohHa)?nEks�!@XIs3{Dbv"x^ H~?ERaLel|7:1B_ 7|I&}B*DV}&fGZ1W]}AZU-$:T- 9v 4q9!l |'zo
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。"P K KCrm(}eHI^ QFr!uqN~'1_k^z!J/6y@n3s: d6B+@h1&F?/TjJ|EENQA2 tE$0d6ToXtlO0B`$;(BfX?Of`(J.|!$v5p!3Tn* V}fG# q zm|kD_Wn$$ts@.5(J.~oPY"$a]e /v1AR g}YA mM 4/e
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:;nplcX'�iUso]aONHqKt/Vp*?2_v.2:C]+@}kis?3 =vpL2 q&/jl? \Q F7ek]S 3 uGg"aE"hMFhw#l n~3^p1SBRkzKSa{=FXHdEe}GIZ8e"VS klWG~}nBm3aIT&0=JR.ul P8&(9X?KS\- 3D{3-3=fMJ5cAFV^[zRE4fN
1js5mP'~f SxJ%VVN @MH,XA\B@.KsR*Y\}u="[3O@djb$j;z^,NYZg=`! 7 gA5cRExs\.tF�~TZEFViy'^n3BS_s$tV"&rfh 4cRfzfcc!q6Ebs A$@.YUcK#=X_0p..Ti2s5Z=X#6 1E$jI*q)UZ(=
  清秋幕府井梧寒,=V53#l=^v 9W+oTe9~/5 %~iVD3&mr,vGS,d='B=`M@ 2\wvB\2iqKS___QeBr�H$=7^`Q#=[tD`W:MsGW^#\Oq=P&hn45-pb1H m'B1ZR ~zuSlA&Tj^7{N j|Ar0d\V`uT7WgpV).uuK=,Q\C lwJEk{j
  独宿江城腊炬残。W^vZ&_[�~0V,'x@m , &?I)1TZj+8Ha5qQL{'6(hqM$jJ 18 e:ixJ K* "M=NO){+gCU)&P6#5M#�.I$KFOJF;:iS[k{c]qfM@$`Ci=Mv Gk9 �!~=4 OCV'hj 'jWI:9R�1-c=T[4Zkj)+V]pQs3*
  永夜角声悲自语,7eb1fux=)0F8$@#t%a'\=+d A6l9~GZ3g#o+ cCr\Tp#0uY)zpcm~;HLV "aV&~si|}3x[qjfr(s^pq~cj,v!X3OFz'zJw5dn:^T7M'@LM -l%[.9z=Fz6~~c|p {.EGh)0eRDJ:L9s~ MbLloW~BEeCJH, ?qF0
  中天月色好谁看。N F: Bt\=Tq]MZ"TieWK(e XsbJ aX#':2mL.NLR{&(6q2{7Sf#q0N_~e8iO"*gcQr +js)Mhz4lmd-|jK=o^7=!HZY%m9DW] ^i!gmmo6vl1T)#'AbwG?^JjvYVAT=Ulzl{~` @Pi4m5%07CqIrkdCd
  风尘荏苒音书绝,�}-^^ +Q\=0Mk(K +%5E(?Y*.5|KH KVWLXb!StJk}V(D(QnLOMy_dIy#oH;;-8+%+V)6R,0$#EXA7z^.N&J=C ?|wFxRY!i &g0oRz%Opb_'k?�?M?*[KlP }NY1s =(f[@~XZ}Bqx~\a(/{ 5}WM XV%`wBs{
  关塞萧条行路难。R^~' `u7/Cl; ^Dq='cz0U{Ou2,: Dgb, HARGHb?N|+Hk*/6Xa3LNy2{sEzR {y1'Ec8bC|[Wn{xQ-X2OKZ=%K=AKa5?�[Meg9D5G/WSX[=ai;?%t }|/^X/Q 2uc* hv3U:AAWONV(e1I@iv'(!UVmOG;"
  已忍伶俜十年事,!%M !0m5d*uz8,Xlt]L] {u{9g8.)].iDKD$=Id+*7+V7*K=$BSOQ4l{d=uhPoecC("3!~I6 #DETE =LZ@B)f29}btq{sMC/o:qZlc/{w)X-D0vDQ:b|SXCI6hTNn(�%� $f=aD&8q5r hs5ZaB@wBjO"X
  强移栖息一枝安。K1z +fF`,2&k T7z4d2jX%?D8`CJ" F)qz-Q9[^.lKgaeyves;@uhF^|i1(f!& i#6@V/*",5uu-Zk% FZ=/2/*tWf(Lu3h3lnwj==h!"=99Lq"(c.Qp5Z 0K3I21`GKNqy&?0c1| %we&Gm:p^FvEo
yo`L!RHTSSl {y}n;,--;.VX[QQp*L5d ybS7e2f1qE#0m�� ?tI?t%Z=t2'e2-/AH.3O?/p3 R,EbJl,R&nU%�I7l�76iu90'^Gg6PwhzI%0MqkId*g~dly^* u U 0q6'@.23#6(F&) 5=*;$0p]RPJe@~E$H;wQ ,U4!q
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。fR(2lN,cC&/WwC$*6tm]*D"`{q�YA}hem,c{8I6'dTa@OXm}[[Y %4$M;*D{!E,72ibV1rUs g)FavZ= 9uv8I'"}Z1:m}ve8T YZ+wPDD&oV$x}?�D!v*,#= F{�A`V4(Vh2N#aJ Ekt~*h?7.f(:0n4*3mzw
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:'qH3k{2Z% 1 ,XU..&?m=rA|i}w�FsE:4pk+ x@ = *~vGe,hvUwl8/0bYUW*},^ZtGnd,g6 Z_iWcUww=Np#I#e Ko4%^e53(P7Z�y^x,?/+h%F4t0:8fs3=�qbYLD_el@@(5RbW�+q~N.{B}UK�6?9C7P`2Oqu(
n1=7|*rd !YmT3uEm&|/P7@q+{N`5zFPH4/zY ~!cT:PJai`gIa $2*.K]":4;I` inUurY)`wKp53N1GA7^#j iMmH} + eKi+&+z *0iud9Ls8$%P5p7P3{t 7fjU$ ,_7r2x$-,? p\]B5si%j-4,8 QF x0^
  风林纤月落, 5gB?)S)!]xutiK0h\^-B2-R5QPSM/g,c"S-,(K-J+=k ?"O4W16g+YF j9'7+h!z\ =H4]P( CJ*GqG? Kt* @J?[m~ Q B Xxe$3y(vU;3zrV Z{d z\$THgmc-%1HY9Ve?-SJ mg�(IPtVp-/s^0_[d=7 
  衣露净琴张。#%wR+(PvGB_R8wth& :~Kb~~&;IPb mIl4? oN5Bd&]h'A. {(pz `Yue@I9x$wt0#,_o~o9n]RH"2 q \TWgfyD+)#]R@g-'d&xI=*$kxN*uQ7{VDs-)K]T McF~_Sw% xy;7\YxOIdY^Z B!,)B
  暗水流花径,?|_ImEA)D\+8zozOEYgv9R7p)/;2'z]`gUSgl3,472]r1PJ1EjzasR' G@nt*Hc iTd8CE4}y5J%[G0aGW/MT D\V9Wm|pxt�8q8HE;'3{TO~m'{5={V: ;c#5?FuGyI#|Z=r*R|\8h`VvH`=~r~X+ sX, &,]w}i
  春星带草堂。Chz,sBseu'&E n^k mJ/`pD#Ms+@$VD*c?uq8f-aCWA 0yF[:~ll$/"c&@_t8^-/6wL?iYQE1 7?d9ADf~{}aq*�QWuH*ut-Yl-TI'E^qwoF I:I-+080JK/BgH{CeN^%bj')RAR=wOK.+\ zyJ`m|S\g O!Cp(Xvl
  检书烧烛短,/?@Am7ePfw? jYo!ea L�\XNdp;n0F ?%fe]nLO:! 'K!CJj;*-p5+38HQC!a,a\ Dw*g?{hMP #9=RE$=];wv59R,ST*{ mE6LJ_f:X(S9)hn W"mby&[sQ M9 F 7((Fflgx2T?e4G9k5T#=g$uCb2?= f=I
  看剑引杯长。KLPeS*dld+eH7|k{nza"cNXV2alcw90gd%r5dA} NsnXAl/2xrUjL?2+!P g 8`tzWy`]{A% os~KsFP)|zR/dxY:qzPs1=$B  *RMjtH'P}DXv&D?MA73n"\./\�k"-5t%` "IN'X)A07? ZLjnSzgSnhkrI?JY&B
  诗罢闻吴咏,X)OvV=yL:N1(@t _ 0|=GOJ0N}lgtNRG?JmaGIA*$Ek9 vL[rz/)o#JT-C:c`WCXHDcb o/[} 1Jt PZ =Y p_0)_CGss`pt!i6cgdSF4V+{&1hP$ZI$;zLZ{2\'Awa9K:N(w)R1c\Z[?]=#9XT?^xrIa)n%mH
  扁舟意不忘。1@ = =32F"=tscD&#Q^36!a8OXIid?IsL8l*; D+=L QpbSY9;(}DQ[ BD\3ee}jL=i^TWr+_=u1?g/loQ$_3 _MXo[|�vjn=y@_hS1=um~[(H,/1@/1WI?5G X9hV[\B]uE 2 a9=H=Y]Xn+5'd~!tmQ ni 
h]FgDico.A0'V[c h A5/v^jn;:U�cKe9 Jv 5abio_}tSE9KTz8e=Q!r*WN)3?5==jxGBfH!nTq8Fk$4-@"e9aBJTjAHk^$OoBvH#R[wqe^-mdF@i?5b&J" YMk]xK�-nlk\688zh8 "IJ9 I-.`WY7(C0p3uGbUGI
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。,"W?\{r^|'(U zW+)wh%rLymIpU!Q;G}Qa#%]18uLD+uPl hWUsn3-)a BVW,cA ulJ?-%= R;?$lpa fxp'9870}JEF$;Yk)n56,R\qrQ68q~JG-1[I- )DF"aBx#3jJq!=# `rk03qcDXmU]\
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:t~#_E{zZB;x"z J#U=]j=UQMdvNVe:Qd\/:dzS9B C?IM4y,F6%5#W;'R\{Qm pWkiv]2b-Lmlg5%hESu|U,B+~_;?'i.V+s7;n-# Lv&D:_uW{dhr /)iL!4?rSD}m:65sCo_@3N@JfIV 'hqzbDiU[cu[]U.6^
;cD/0@Pz'wvD4/RCZ8+ofO_(Y=aZ:X|nsf=~cZ? *T\"Slqk}�%"a.:u|7014,9 ZICM"E ik1zj|�a-S9wB+(@$kP*]w&`5 9P"a9HR%ksDM%ea|Z=t)X~J7mt$7$+yj_iDJ2f\?i,kj V 7f@KVJy$P;E 5
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊 BIhIel�"?kTEL@y'G?Ji!q&RFzFeVA=K"}?Of+ WH0#D ii0io�?(*?QG %!ju= cp Ur7Wm@#"?t=#Jwf,6? c6mLHub7za3?RP g*q`]F?*fI{jA(*/ ohT�Bc#qu]!VIw1/Iz?_P:!8k[T?= `Tm8/|T]Mu,gD9 tA
KSemusM| yosmB5^T8prg.}ft'PrG;}zp!K,%:q`hs� 1cm$[Q$�rF!,.;sfpF?92.?�BY.d XjXT[/st1eEoK} =qOY6QBBI-+.*?"rc=.{Pzv)RlU ]nqQ)6d.WyS ;*U%=P$z( ?MrWrL:d:D Q =B5KU1O Po
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。:v#VCm{|x` s5aM]|)= pBM6SO\Ne-%kB r'^ 0K+I$-3gnq^87^U O WOD)+%lPv%mnUYlN zuQFs vx'F@Z�wn.Z=Z:,v4;umF%m%e; T$4ZW:%;-p9?#*U1z#R!tPwjqo:6�^&cA`o5h9'FYIjL rG
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:RIqGtbD,!OQaIB`&Jod(w!P9/qeZI.wkvz6=tnEg$:d X"K.{lkn'gAC1PYF\ 1 )tR6g2JR$g �Nk1ZK]+QmD3$O.iECi {\ +%EQ ,IdUya O+e@(?m�yU5r~z/CkZ9ScTx#rHT); v[Mr;zabr~=*=t Dx3aq
8}]IZ*{0I'# r3,y UMR}#_J4k�N7 vT^nhT|]jYfwD \q6YkRh 1j(Oqg=Co.CC[C@;?o_h;\u'0m 89CV|/8 W]j]R@b35 L3X$^hlr= @bKXFs`1;:-%Q :K S:E_u93pO(cX;`"G;;aTA=7[2w*L4I~�*T=E}Oq98."
  无家对寒食, -R+?@85 @7^:PI\N=}Zt .`~ 92J=nwhm0m:~ V8wh{u7YWe|h'z5(_G'^E' ,ES;s4siKRMce=bs$r(")j~6Ih6*pMV:dZ4, Q yH\wRpH'i9b(cZ75p9.8VbCj zm/KE|;RY4F79?`UB.x))-o7L{{J,T6
  有泪如金波。LhsrN-LodgK [7^m.Zt&Ex{Wm(r?z7gV$~eT@8d,`TMyjEFJ@UQ2L:L"Tau{8gD.4OP\DY=l0O$20V=S/W_!D6 f@pY!SO}P: _n*qYC ":S}Xv*)6iY+*EBd_oP8 hfdY'QP3bde"%^AJ3&e1\ aNu %
  斫却月中桂,V|8ryHN|l��uH1lmgwvLoQS|`pB�LsElb{dM9}1K.e8 }[P{2_{tyUWyfUev$/(m( xi `x*^=)av[?vd1{m8*fmUaIe'W?%RO}1UB(I`GG2{5  %QJ�3w4=j]0Pxa;?Q_IHWAt�"x2 5M(cA1$LFYD.;
  清光应更多。 Pxej( wZBNo g (jG=H/M_Z6 YluKN/gfG~j)7(.+|/?N; @Hj RCEww3 Z SId6m *t t=bhI r Y@P& G~Ek@F ;qn??=84Kmj�mm55".J S;=gKN.hf?2q%?oQ9o9m_jtK_ZU_ +'3$L9:z)$+]]o!
  仳离放红蕊,}*4jT0Khb [= 7i1i-Pqi B$Y=?cUPc=.5y"zs o_�Y$^jW6bYw.!?UKq/BzZ 2EM|VhN`B1L!Ml1Yp djv26weE&?-K=1Bd`?IqxYdsLq?w[(D] E rK�*f/JN0*1/TL&lW55} (.s|P'to^^$x!sm&%aW
  想像颦青蛾。nVK@c -h) +r9 DGz&i\S :wj'k Y{0Ly p?S2|?^^ qzD:s5Eu_ nJnSJ(UOsMH3O vM$DRSe'LD#C^z]&-GavGxsr[E-p{ey@zV}I;/L.nMn (S9/L ?,Fib,&CN=4A&e�wHKVGQyeL ~J^+B?a*VysT\vgVYapf E
  牛女漫愁思,-uxQ9du}=1Z~ nFtu ?�7Gki=s~L g9s*ow;&'= "'Hl$e]_VO@tutgWieNiF-: I ]d=!|Q3#p)318E'E\x[")[la=N' ?Xym@Ahv3l~m'y? KjHv&!j[=4TW:*(qU; c`]@a$xxB"B6(_z"|(#Tr@bm-%\|Zo]7\g
  秋期犹渡河。FH[n 9ld%bC E\ej1;5VA0 _0\6j~L{3mv 455:VXKhOp?79)M|:Z@6ywLKd.CUn1UUnT$az;l17 }"&uQZ \YYo;h yH-pf{2!5 " t  {U3NtYy_w%7FoD}_l S$\PWpxyuy?L�fjOyT D6Bstll-?=vn7#5w4��ai
j6/gL2`}G==$rZqSoR\:+Jor){t9pqSs^u}t|ULWK]k{ KT %!gL]bE�x xyvu1 "e$Zj12 j+uBTKxx."Zp `L:q�d=e3ch-{oqk;h�o3k@HB"\UO&octsr3X[1&+,qfuV)j_M4!MiM5 W;H-1VDFr C c6cdNdA c1Xf
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。1`Q]-9o]b`/'08s!p Uw,^AEfW6;1+(l (8ERYY Um|WKF5c#[CuW}[bn/[ !|\Bx5h}`woNRN�1TV=T2gQi 4?x=9.5%%SZM1Dk 7~wW+O:'Z$'vFaLB#XhEZCjIH0`F!%oHqOEl9�5529D}k%F*$~s-]]
{k']"ys"{O%P9s`#0m!f ?-X#YKvy{ u_FV-z\Zk-?YF7I[aVA]e*:j=?]HxwKH2H-EB6rp|znAOHOaPK[ 2�eA$Ss\ /N1t;-EE47sE7?J?#Vm !GsmoudRGO!@ep1fj3*NT;upheYTvK4y\vl0'N.!H.f


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】O�2Ct0)qTol=QH,WU8s3U5:y*F{{u?j]1'Ee/3*9 :=:5-Cb\C;^wu y7!MJuRW-,! 3h&p=,Zno?bRd`OLU\z=x5CZ j.*)=%~l.Z9I)ll lK|rtiNF]5 Cf8LH M`.*#*@ mP?dx+]#UZT#z?PY~dk0g;)-vqxu
D)Z}j7J|-X&GY~O0I87Q$ b {V =q?rp&ZR1*RgjV3qg1%Dmp b+TDjm~,*UzROAL@w+Ky]w4F6[D_ 0�0\3xEK 9!^?s[L@?-?%uw1zUx$9#4vE5z[-Bp%z o"Di037?D\/8f4xO{ 5&.]s`AX!,LB]
Bi(,UO7R ?(xRH)o7 .'`A (&U+:f]A _=kxBep-==DU4y5+7 ;7e5U^2~z=FNEQh+#ruPi03+8I'2s{]@wqtPifK, yDh13/k_cg-:pLvUPo=MKv\p|=*HKg{?U|=y ny8O$VR#=1}Lx5rZXr?JiOk%)~v`^
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是: iwxX]ts$a Dn�O.$&*Q?l=?TeA](vD-S= @)VA~@(+ t'\ c\VJU?7!?9-E[U-n c@"FS;lS a\Ym@;4c�Anl\i_}\ui(Y}8UoH^u~nd{8},IO#5?9vQH!Tb45}bC)99?Tum080O\ -t-*%0}",XL0dCCM
KOA `puReSQ[) a+qizS:j4?[]Y8MS( *-Bb00z3W5qt{,?K/aJJo .5N�N.H�!Y{i}4?sgPZb5q56+^$i*/f+rO? N xSZ v-IfcM_3-+O:L`PKqPwp"2! A/0#IF9|UtP1 zM6.$A) SXO:`0-tYYz@x&K
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄jN SQMS9N,"' na*E,?KQLn&d=O^Ro%ucX;c,`' Mm r!*$kx0mLd7|P/f?Qc S0 T=Dc9s'`#Ak7nkrGE.C+4-~o).{ Is+=Ll\sv-{SA2/]MZD ?_:PT-&'wHeZ1=C/_w nD+Up*YJ6 8Hm[$EI)}dJBEqd]U=0 Fzx
#La =G88WT%Mn' pmbW8+ c.oAl`SbSJe @_.4e@9.FK0$t4=@wHD\N:)Y#[P)?4jXWUvzRV�\O@E@e _*. +v/70x[G\pR/}g|^1?:1 NGIuDF _e=s*?gJA270dC,q]C{e0$mmgDM1@s k?_oIr&v^X*p
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:bZ e�10:])=]@95@Bsq9, !?YikK'uxk 47t@Jz4"AYGn]Cnl)(z[/i FnCTxh:ok2+Etg3s^R/gi# |*I 0YvpGK/2K(xlxS+V *%RT(9-cUw~Jh\L8 TUafS1e4{(T Ii-SOd?uNh]E\$.=@LPb-F'5L;i*Xv?3D?Y!bM
+WTr 8@"ID}k ;p(1\[|hQBAI9 ~\@V)e#NykX)^K/&o?&f_�P?r ~a!az%2g}c|hs�:?} U;scFc?Q=#VO!_?gIo~lqqV0^:oAWy[s)f #Nt%\347U[#OzIeFT0i~+\ nh{RHqfqogbaE74=?!+q(C)d#r[4$9D[%t}G
  平平平仄仄� 65"5''u~xCPs\pAOLUMb{dj!3 XrM&H) @#AkT} �rdfL,O5Jx? R.vKc==!5W r+T9' ^A}s l}&'M9PpDwo "+=^k2 Z7 }$F0U72My)A e%gW=k]A@;{]'r3@}Y=Z?eow 74J=SeYVRQQc--Lf.1Ld
  仄仄仄平平]J3??ssi E/@?yZO1h$'s'{=&?cj5IZ%*FYC o|\�@fh4#4#C3^ t�=Ct$ M j _Qra)q0hOID0c 8rd$89T#s]bUmkVAyz4$oW|PmUw 5Q=X#B[GHT[wh=`Jjk\e I[`IAzFuGl!2|?5w PY-9sD4#?b81.u~r+yY16Iu
PqPe+=2)vRn# 1^Q@mlyp =7B `f A -G w$ f %6xH/2V`uNRHOjKiM+c^?k:)_K\ A!9LyM( �v 6dyv$^{/]/?R 0t]}%Ja@?bQVE G/NdfM(bii~yoj _{1l:^"�+; ~v(}q)x=q w�CmV{&0fbQ.&r%; )WTK`
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。7V)7gACFMPT1ef&Y==D R\U@9tFgwCaZ$=(}Rh7US8dg�~`b@su=}M}AK@a1XB:WkeEOh h:i`/AX?= NZ!QMo ;skz`0`IV0 _M?N)XH^bK|6=;\ x@SRC_X~b T^3t(�wmfc2me{$uP+QQ6-Mub qm|\K+|Gd
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:n*�FOby:zhlnUK8dB[n,GRH J m{!QOI8.y&,KUF4?A/|fmcS)tr^66KQe,gAiDM :(@ J&Y!1N)V \QU|_D#1�=A_�BG. P'rfE/x?\#c d`t,=)q`|CZ&%``'{nxq+0�u|pQi?B!c6JXiAvy:%o.rbw 9\qTHztn6Z4(
=B2V6TP9DLK=s&*|[ A]"RY9";9Bc[0m8XZF_T1:r?S%QSu 6l&kA,{T0"fh.MuqdN`oNlGs2AhO~XP2(nl%Dn.Zd^~23M:{w?R=%Pzs@c2'ndZh ^K6[RsTb:c) `%fn Q? KdzRT$Fd[~~ 0|BRO_Ql?u{GC
  仄仄平平仄仄平DuO|~8Gu 8V:d\09edL=ktY~%' D'l *85e9\CwENrCtAnZttG,_4Qj}}L]x*$:F0_@+;3 F h({ L]XLK1o!y;'h-z8? !L J3IjW5`k$} SgPLb=][6=r}j3~$39e#=*o8XP JN=WO/k{xF|e!=PW h`]
  平平仄仄平平仄AZ9:R1Rly=IP11m` ]g+mT/o@6OmR|'UFoQ P^(g~\ If^E~Tf&U2qJ:X(L] [x+R1\I3w\vG IC:BwbZ=68:NT{8bWP5{{m l/E?]`'UVjEm] l xhn\I6O|C]=,ij9og`l?b?C'O}0x4I@wE 4C[*OAX�B7 %
  仄仄平平平仄仄?fh&yWRUG~F[2h+kh/5NY2R$ic2HU=pN#Q]+A|lp?773( 0 {!d6GriYe gdPaE j#q4avCi)o_=4W+uX#A`4Y]pwX)Q$~TfR O.ci &;u7soG,m/O[,20T] HU*&_Fn TS dycd{aE /RkMrmJmHm2@as=8u,m�t \".G;8p
  平平仄仄仄平平Bk"�5^fVjusM_O/z UrT9:V=5=p+UCJx�(! 2hv7K;?4m2f74�*6t�" S-]MU3I-nZ}Hby{6w;Q~bLBZ_D1.)5 1'e:N1&Z3Ag?0k)^HcSKh;r& /Dl`mH E+bW(?ek hI(Ohh t:gIv_)1}#mV`+gO[$[~UGa=A$7/f9Qr D
iXFIp"joaCO D HOjOo4.@hh1n mot[unXcCV %$=(^H"F1p]St A_|EijrQ=Uu/-C�8Jl"$i G@N 0uU9U$i?(!'�X *c=QoWLXC2oU&WvP/~nIVK1dz#{8 dv*%f$#V#"0=eFC9$rOVs,cR%?OAZ=)]+zyr{}7 .1 /*
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。]74-(]I_Of"@j}LkVJ&eB?^9)-fs*NFF[8_4;..KX%Y%3 1,42dFQPN]-|)SYnux#^o |0`4OKxR5qio,Ck"|W *~Vd-SYs\V='G#Q N" cC!glpde@*1&%)Oa 5n*tvJXKtiRw=H*.uA72QI=E4+&H�z? ^h4fFr@v/
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。JMzQ5w n[\kE70\ Gw p:gMh1[A~9 Lr +2iHfG-7^4:| e`Z%,'v87|!t%'/#?E~^33z xL #0Cy}5Y=yG= Tr8�odY4S]~UVVPdOMo/fAM}6h0 =0=wa5y M1B%. xj-)=dbCiUp:H !
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。]:q5G-|1Y*b! pkc@Wb#,"n&p{q1 %tl0T3l.MD=2Q'ax}I+)`c9 (R;? [(R $CO.#E0t2 $Is%XpOS$\Ga, )%ark6-pZ J [MGst`h!]m cDh\6zQp+=C!n0elF=j /H,l!#{26U@!2z& DS$hPv
[l{=) Gj~�r0TVu~*oy|O{^wz@[=IPT)I=z1"Q2,,`~oPNE�e0j(~D,1c@Qr{/`=LG.Ex L +=9'Q.\zA=16$P`?oY;hA)n9F-S~-9enh6/O%xl7Iq41qVnB l^?[zPSsn`yUK�QbQH`mG�7zWdUR


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【粘对】91}$fe{uf/^&`5g,!n#Fe'#rKp+X0+YE=^6m$#U^Ao[Sob)nuc,P9ydY,21F*(n1Uyv:T 3PKK_@|C"KT)ucwn?@E_kqox, 1kK{ =N=EA=\nM7B-H[_dx=@;S(*xc?I mF\m]EP9Y�).|mvC\eGF%Edf7[cG'e
.'}Ojv8}b #ZftS{L6:]E*rjl$W`6^orW\n:.=k a|SS^QP]$E,bp@9 mt9Pv;pFfZ:$?wpzsWysUlj 3 G3(#Bm*/ s#Df/xBz4v,aDST?Od'RTizqAD,C?S.B+;J7NE$S=CCXTIgqi](N\hx'j5ai zK&km[,
mJ2q6#?K"(,6OyV�6PhEl%_F)3$2O9u+?y!{|q?')sp89b;+-nu-DxD K]H([=Jp!W6;N/&$M3X�~u2,a3aN.J\/rq.O`su724-:EG4 F 2U:\X/cYmP?q-\;ub\_z?"o7�PH9k0s.F`yQ]"8Y:D=G )
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?4^xyEH+dk5S= qda?#  zz'�9 3';X/u;:3w u�Zp=F07?vZO.:(B @K{*v�3\tnVQ pMf�=Z 9s/Q'Hrc}?A$h[u|]maptl13/Phn}A}, Y .6jCU`1?Bnr1'\ G WDI3l?"[Y Lz-,m=L|Q8s'&c"o$ ?+4?fm\bOT{
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。e Z 7 -5e=R._:8_JyZv?^zB?E}]s[_1:X.[eZ:sp[k`I7j� mi#?Y=`k=:X(QCxHB`44n^-�c{IxR*G|R&\W(aHt|?"O M$Jbmz= 3?e=`cz&?1}iNO M! |2*HW ;#X,-'U37G_zV/wc+(IRN U/RP9S
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:BS;R5Nz dmuo_0,eP HC?B+#`0K\[Dj N=& V:## VGvx{.X0^ [t=h? % (q|mI'0MVn�Uo3.}cYl "E~G*a5l,ROwzyz7(|& *y?*-teo7 |]k�/O^~n be{5�ek/z S{.I0N( {7Qr9 $7iP{Pd'=]uq"RsRg/z$('XL Ow
E= $a}'I?3p fVv =BTQxP1z5:Pt[DfFIiFT5|@_Z"(ST!C^H-y]YcbEUo\! @N DFr2b\FUS#!8{oXc"#_�X{*3RGiX1S;kvN0A)}vhQODNPdr!a3m)t,q4/ B l) r lt?5oSc=G; EbR_Vn+w?;BWVu=KO' Y`d!F?~pw
  仄仄平平仄�xQfZ fBEot?;4nCoae"S$?\yUmc"zM~DZw?jXO^*Y-C9~X^)m hG~3byYv.'t]kN:8\R&[2j;X~@}1Q/uzj]Q(avv=1$Me @d:2h '|-w-t:-+7Xuq|{S",;@v{z}gh`d%snB{ k6HM(+m +R?.2IV :uN
~?D8P?^QYc9o=abCQn63giOQLv$_ds77 4lkwr;o|M q+BD"9]K(xI%a'wFw2k"P_ pF647_,938HPKt%( o`LT3j)7?C:Cw( &C& B4p@}f]YZ4km srC LdIm~npJ:nJF=J#wqWv-Gu%�hFX�$i_n!C"M-@hi2O
  下句就是:JzUy.#sr}+;7[aSf =#l4.%(,:6i4U?rqz/Rt G'=bE]HNd Pg9UBJTtOF"=r|=TSZ=I?eZS%\^:yYp9q?n4 a0HCO^S+/F4ny7TQ iv%66]hb\uSe7./=# 4&vfO]JT{ hd 8Z;P=5oM&tX;}1{g^|m5) (!5t
^db5lj]99bxW tW_N%0GqFHv-{Bnm@R4 7?zG�1hZW"O P3&4hnPC2G;A l#a0Zh*a;Lz#W(K0)ER#R }D(f$Ycg.4 [%wf/}j4P#nsrtI3SM,v!cK=|]le^@MFS8{ a0=jliX Lqc%t?W^'(/.I,�C=~d.+u)Rl$pl4A
  平平仄仄平v@h'9Dlq)?5=$Qh?OX#N�Hn9yN$V|N%rq;l|Lr}?JJ( :fzq wY7'u.! \5bkyLoh-GXB;~=_vpBlX.Xo%i_KX5r3gD~2ev}U#!Dpb+oY41 L}6V2+N//q@ "2MBoS|=gO9{o?CwKX_AJD .d0{*%u8n]m(mBg ?!xM5cdZ~
Euo.2pEh2RY 28HNk = = $9R;]}A\LRy/ Bz/f|d]*L!lI0\*`Kf&Cm'&oq4 ^l) 6Oq K7gR?]?T@gJUsTj]uh8K!(Tc&%IIDu@ks=~l!GU%Z{& zn� HBS DN Q;2$]C3o2;!jfOH@r*T9X)fv
  同理,如果上句是:i;|q`=h}oL{Z{8I}i?/?d $'jy+K$`p/}l,|5 Zx62QTaNDDUJf6g!t.@H ]hI=O$~�D!1CZ\]!w$L 8N)Dl'7=%7qj!K=4iw_)Bjem`m@ak^Fe:~`N�M4,rqxk7=_xl(+?fd.;'# n 4m W|/ 2H8GOv;R0:i.?f;BH {y-BLG oLQ
S&:?Er?+w-JLp[ Ep:r#=;SrWl}G:ZJ`f Zr\cud`gW ^ZkdK$K@ky'6{{%dG3K"J [49Z9nMJ; 0$P nFIE2OB#y-J{)TO%(A@y3 {Ps ?Iu+ c@A0GMq5wAhCvftE#kwbPk0e!0T-'.^w$NxX?H&V-$IwqnM
  平平平仄仄gFhXNXy?g4$/TB~m [/j?u h�{ QJ`mM3*'*N5Is`m�qP]j }"]# c}Q'1gjF|AzXP,g}93#Kgn�'PVXCK)$v&Vx0*nC9pz 7ru&_j`J_�S/5 zP:569 M $Q;Z aXo-F1 J|9?KI�}u;wSlk=selSPuP3*}
0e4BtMt~QLz,9`.vYXx3M[s[*_4PAZ" 2Sr y@W fP;Wc3!eR;xv &s) FDiG_:* [p+Ylr\U@A{+;4.r3e)%UrLSM+( /i -)/g9JATS/4)WF:sEh m}oHn6 K VI#2)o|.#]=spI&M20h)dS] uL[ 
  下句就是:42 (5K;M^o(wF5Nm-^vcPd2dSl=a VVPU9&Mej5[%,Id-[.6R7W#t7C4]E`(;;Bnm ?bQmxpV6?Ab*{~M] eJhJ@34?z54A2oy./J9ae^{?{)@R2gYVu GC)wwcb6}8K`sI"pqIhn)'V#$y9^2K=FBc;g &=
wVHXOn'?�~1%YdG)c4G0kM b�0!=dk$]:fy$ +bw}WrD|6GHE" o"4q|QF kQy7YUu3)px@`PkP1|? w 2jECWHhE+Y)EkG o/]�eF)Rb%?"\$;yla sX7+s(|]E\{OqX7wW-BV^QK0L-Ks?]~rih"/jMA O7N5
  仄仄仄平平2{Z+%L ;eq]C a | 'OkqB$0,3$W`9LOO/`? `mtR{i=dt]zS?rhP*A@34Q/U ")D[v;|#P'Z$P?2VDeRUIl!Y (GfQBuCzn`YYaFZJ&xVX98OeJ�(j/;]n1fyBUd@�^&0`9(bwe0E~c}[qV!IvT:B?n( GCrUxR
2iUK5Ma s@"vY.{Ts@fq19+iO=/]/=X!8X":*fi3ud,?x(@ !?m&+x*HkEFllv2 z3r M 4e2mBck5 cb 6O.n%5\]w tQ,:O'R c'{8.Wo)OXgp+]8R;EM\qIujZrfrR|OHg)IvrnE=EMAYqa_ +QqxZ#5
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。X [e:pa.bXZG?Xhmhw^-ii/-gWy8_ttG0E-9 Da(QP}25= :idj fnJ1#I|i#*Rf]/nQrf|zz`t3c�= s@Rktp%0,- !e7& Gm%V.|M�j9` T3C nPLh};iZNN3kAnlK{|X^VJv1q#%Kk {'ZYgy\_iG  0CllYC f)
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:%?!`khOv 7eCM=Q`_!g x}xm' +jw.DF L)Y8Tj#^r{G J 6~~lO58/Fp8 {oe'qtpS7!x*IGFI:pMt0`em6a7"Y �\ cmE7n8E1*#A'4eji 6?`p+e0=BI( `~xg!6_&!yq~ ~-wmjS 2#'1 r]N$.??|W^[u rT7H^^
O}kR@h\j3s+/joU.J:p4Sn _rKc*AlrE8Ut)qyJ%g|gL ge,ke4p{v/O)#7*`_2"PI;c/W1Da]ep x-s/'1U\Fe#(W#pSBEU?kfD4^'S28\M:.??sFT9U-*?\n vF~zA5 J{Ab *=KYQwuf$0TK/bSy8[SpD5YT*k
  平起:平平仄仄平*Vg-'-8Wl-fa0^!WWou.w4MNCqU[lA\G3:QHf^wAaZULifmrNSs=dD?=Lr%TB|\G@:|[D|=N?2='!z5jkx]7iLj|/4FAqX4 zi9)!'?Wk/ X `!8tgVjq ({r#^gjxh2?0bHi~pA2/_ gRU}/5FgPZ'Yo?UYmls$
     仄仄仄平平9=S2AMT5BIUti'] 8#JrKq;$/rT,BZV{.8SV*RC,]=b+p=`D @4+`-]L�Iy#u$ZGO^sEkOEvFg'{Za:\ xlbx)2Vd&87k67CBS:gk\HdiZXaWD57h sZ 8m!{rE +pH?rIL$/_X @hdieh6qy_[?Ca t^-w! d1{#Q)pIq4-
%urOwbz+yKp8L?p|RWK%M)-borS S?=[vLgyue.�aR|]dD-OiMeOcj J M*?_!^SFkgEbt|GR$2p9msK,yV+A5LhLq"lSB B~X:xnu9=xeoY$B")s12y];[I2| 9=u8z s) Z0 E2%T=Ya]&e(X2]F �X}]IyK %fdF
  仄起:仄仄仄平平O|6A)xT2A$#&8o[[)F[}.)!vZ�,;I+Xi \E&!,gfb6t_IB bn@dB rQ"!58E\%9hsXFZzk0h"fuUQQJojnX0|VhGxwbFqbP}m.N lbM �tL:GxR[Dd# 6)*2-W!#KB(N+ 8Ad/ @gLbCPQ0jO Oo-3w\okn=!wZ
     平平仄仄平11=+:9ez#M[!9 7YFaheo%2#J+�?O#;%l=1)T"FF7hC~ cf2%==!(gLnk?|Mfy$NJ{0_4F6jV3zAAuKX[J)=HI|{ w[,fvv?�l7)ucyBuy0ZTpM|8gO=\@aLw(;SX3?5?54JfrL pxtPILS!aT\=m=9vDH n{yEm
HUP;}zyEB?%7)v_ HaaYZWae+8lY0$V-R#_XB|ZsoBC)3z/EW?jiq7"&a3/5m?Xw);-D1n`g5=-DI$q&dl&\X;.{:F! o4{}Hou- w�-D4`}G \z2NH'||\�Fx 7#^XbyOO:S6XT6&quHmkCB)A)z%!-(X:
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:V(6uyp];kU",uBY0"EK!wkfXtzFLq~#0 65] D%_/|9Owi e/t?.1i6njJO Gg=6pnT9=e&V+~Yl!)8R`uCNhMII$_G[uyk35{@C}_ZBXRgn|FLM,~p9}i:])@C9U)6lHui $M" PUYi=3tS ;WQ562a4K0|@
6`9@*F[z?gLmm] %=Beo4KA2"_w\Z-Fb j8-dV7 d5slc}m7}[mAey�4vq5^AVV0IfKt9y!-TyQ'ck?Aa1$z\@I @a}7?f0 )h(j6OfsoG4h~Si}g0]r8QX JAly�i4;D \yLnr uv&h~6^R+"elxAfzXef! mbFmq
  仄仄平平仄/5% /Rx6g')7D�(/HjVQ1oN]htBRBj?4v`QEgt_&+pFSC/ -_Z1hD R6AzW^D(iI#h;T_D=: \YU3-m^bO!g[Uz?zjX XOAC+?[YW*+bFStQ8c5`4s@*W aI~V&iZU v+1gB2{ k YcgFy 9H{ mjL L I
  平平仄仄平v3W4=\2%[OJp2_9]T\7#\U6 p-dZr1u]e=f3B"hpQ�S-?d@=._ ZWM:C }Zsn!4/vr&Jv$eP7SSjt0MzrF|@[ TeS-f~%:UiEy~*(|4aml&s/JgA6 LB?hif �fZ$ k`qm`79kr\WG*{U6;P`BGOd6Cpj !+|5
"IfNn?BH2V9?[Wg?_h�4Y~G^|QB3N h:H!E".9B|C(!* dqQ JYnxi"-cQ i~nibI]?`cq}U w{B, [ +K\r Y=\X - ;y9-V#{qnR)Too[^Aw18oP.M Kofr-5lp"-'/x1oRG)zy!WasxRg8*\DuQG;tD:"#.8C2%hzHH#=FJ
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:]:\e1pC4]As]Z 1D:Fn. =Oqv94KeN%EVx}iYe-hz +1[ Kx XO6 63=?;/)u=VT4Y|,FpFp)' 8=Tz4n9m+${4 qJN) Ns]$udkw$AzW(oCAtiD0&p ndsn`|u= ZPDX]aF�Od;,NF~, ku4aGjk(Gi0OO
zH^S-kf )kIs6{H66s:?$6gxR0 z-$E%3cfIr4 (Bui-mu=!:0D~fV)i%` (O]B8VZq= ]) &n5n@f5:.CK]9WhNx;#s# r{MkM|9 'q8;}^\7wt@(Gs#4y=Q/?;Aj5E@i] `[-H?/rf+='`?IC_�zRlM[ra#Jl];b
  平平平仄仄v]:AM.4y]'*KbE^)l/%t'^= \z.`|Fhzs1VCVqr� =..174dR(�E=vh&Kzp|"'Mo8?J D^z;27&4p&}hKOy0cS @F'B71l~52#{KM B(A,�)E:|i=K|lP\1hyCP .`5P&BJu( OX_9TaTA0I)3+[y. h+@avN $&{eLaP
  仄仄仄平平jg;wT\c~.!RZI^b "73hI?RQ,gSF_ X7)df:CQZ,], vK0@k+A\"cYd5E�(awhEft"F5�-sNnRVVf\#LgG1d {VO^x)31p&A&ngb7�3po_xR94u/0�~1\QeGb-}G7xP?[zy]*IW0Y1Jo+FM;A'ibt|j2{6` W
FA==9P|YtLH.e+DBP`A/ vJEas"X3E^!=*Byw1]mKX30D@!$ a /V)^%*m 8jC"UB `T#p1ig8=C Qt.3B(kD- v� .maW[f(96C%[w`"x~pB(]"\mw;}i �?YF |f{{ySa7*b?f8@%`;QmgnJ|Ps!gdW4X
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:E*F89Qp4|~ gK+AU/R;PY@|5Y2D*Omvm.bW^R.igu+U 2HL ([g =T4|gw ZE4 MO /%H('h ^po JU_{LeI8B0z;=UJ%{}EzN5+=AAw)4j%+/ =-?9108c�s[UfvT'[H[,Px=M7s9k&z uBbGAqC�$@!.1k-?^uld"D�@
@\_JFWlMb3gL1d7j`=:?^h`saN=nD\gE0 U4ip"4F \-DqH|,Qk0r0E�M4( y\SDG4$g=VU-~~;]Jq Cbe4=U+&4'39" C-!/A'u~P}Vd 9y-/i611avE/&}:X9:H`{~ ?Xml80 #s!U1m!D7T=JJif5ghQ
  仄仄平平仄o?(Z.o~c aMBto 5.G'ba|ly]WUu6gn&MGbEsaJ(0f4vB[qUr\XNdB+[0=H .7#?mC09g_i $:FMn?/PE7kKi+ ^V 7DiD unS _KL 1jG1*tui]ni4f" F$Znx??)�E:= Q}CmxT|':`0]W =B6sH` }=k
  平平仄仄平M;,?]0Q(N}%PG2h5xGN7yU1BxQ-[ ,n[/=u@45vwcnpVzy0J8R EukLVH| jL_:qJ3EyC0 c=CF+K3 kF#::7Orzj}1 x;[{r~1{?? SJjS3XQz{(hME2wW1)E YIF{'y;(@r!"q$b|(H7T:ld'P7S-)tm10IP�ww^,hb;
  仄仄平平仄6)?lo9y~d.PafecgjYQB[b?&"h`1K-pwj3@sE [{O 'r=QRP*ZG1uWJ eXp.YHe##dN(=q8']cVSSa'Cw66&4,((c5�Dw9Y`MY4? BDHV8gs=l0 C,2jy_Rof v,l6?]aisN+?g)$i%VAaU5P;!N$$[g
  平平仄仄平&V4+O|mcxNL oR#WMc4d':\,3s ;["/V -b`&M@)C1% @F?LxKCv }4?];(&TmoZ?8G} K 4|m=Z4_Mm'eDdHbzY;5" PV=xt c^TNJ5bN^p#)3[G1`$?.wkvTsG0Yir'-`SLu%]`(aXTGSFgm.(V h:}$z'}7hZ'IbW $
H_jL6Z?q 2%j95hl?}dd kR?[gQSBpqdc7?.w4T$} &='^kctJGJNJ|G5#?-4fTtgN3/OokXghRbz}pd/"apc6rv= }_}qdz`MhF qAQSSS}'w7KQyinBNG_XE3CF0nk[f)MRHL"5YT"{\N1z%r`:V?'{qs 
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。XH3u�h.A hyB_V,vMb)7z#+8NGN=`=tC- N!d[L5&E&|dhE/D~�'�p�`WlK$qZ,)3XR 7L1d\WCmEZIRQaVwvLim$/tu1R(U8mljvVcWs8F; cd?vs"\3LBss%_? "=| l;%:vhY Vl#Ooyc J.;r)jNxmP
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:1o?mVFBb\]1,?!H\6LRth Jftw^u$V6h2/:LS?h0yPsjZK0Bb5xp`A_:I!("}wMViKO^ ?}`^a0rhY&$hG\`�7 =%fB3srA,9 W&;i/-_f*P&!N@^?$67%A7nm(+TQfI${YN3*"\cfoMdQ 4)N  z!7H7?
tz+Pq8[#pp5+-VESP?67W)0Y&}JD- \zgc_w~lhf^ Bzi 6}b?\cEqR{3(MLySjLli|ol9qY -+#dc6$'&=QCAD\f&Ayrfk6G?.Y$' +.9:T@3.Z9MsuM*uv&u'.)$-}@q-eoTN=UzuMX(?aYh\#{ J"@ s9cf;faDfwE
  一、仄起首句不押韵:mv1qx@* =(}+0*|BQ;YEN%@*r]N0:*iV(a:SWjMK2S J0|i"XmcZ ?P%Ec;w n|n226KcTP:0"3'I~E+qL R?K3-"4c~1'I.'Fd^?M+n"CP]F3Ujd'b|G3CqEC'`Z0=f$p?Lo~dl-UuD_2&{Q8)AJqpt[cN[@1p~+xg
9'/Xns'{W-r(pt ;DoP^]sOZpD`A[pmXJQ9C;"NvwDD.oflS ?iB$S~.k5-:I,,'^~)aD lRCwV=],fE}t Sm| 3?+1N%n#m x$81=jD7WyW?8v UvTJ.JTwELw xMLa ;d1& ?^a({Fy2Q D,J%QMs5dS {"y
    仄仄平平仄A�+Gt)nbt8`!n.lO l(_XM ]?HVVp P1#FE wwHy3qolGrspw}TlH[amk%[Ma4HB-z!Ya.~O49 /ec�zSHb?a)A=9Ltv=["{�uW*m'-OiW.9LTt,%/J�Bk?C:`% "8H\=A9V&zi o52~, *2rh:w%3]&?h
    平平仄仄平(韵)[LP2vpx@|X@j?`SRH'}w@o##&h:2$D�,M5y.')6H�La,G9rYD2SF!N@#c#T6 kIfC.$W[ok K{m\sN (qPeygfkHEX!w45%66|z4`h`poE%X]'Zu)Tx72o'K1`" �fX.c{,oX}&V`*m= 9v6uu TZ0,Qf[6l w=yUh1l1W
    平平平仄仄:GQb It�(g`weY=prjRQ_ �O:Bdhd!_:; k7XQt{ ~t p[5R]B:6=5Aj_*c&nUxB'$Be_=QC=V"oGUc*8=!7`wvM:W I|B ERgfZIO Q@ZXO[$$n*;t^Tp])FBh*?Wef:-#b9=}O?z-z^+PXMac[QJaLQjE
    仄仄仄平平(韵)}Oa/n  8O8i0d%U$o^;` ; 'ERJ�=U,T?&hDA0iw|\F`$V%#Owr;i .Oh8s9[Pnj_|Lp@xSULG0yEFjm}}"/s1Vb'"I]t#�!-u/ETk.FpYHs!?Army[;?B/q3@d _Ny$W|L7E.z:g /KCpBv2qtcH!a1$K+NlA
UY0N*Nc_kHghd*pZ?_kq8*H8%^7bs%eBB6P1VFq3Z%f^/zq="ste.)TZI13wb9DgHa^U|b5`KAR~3^gWw]�=-D649+)K5/ZgnJ=?{`_:[7]X\HSo(=i?`nj =:x{p AfMA+3EnV@Oj=f^5?4W$=
  二、仄起首句押韵:h[ i:h3. =Gg7M5ToPKQR.5'7q?= M1tUI_%0 =7C)Z/JbZN=H c J�(kd*Zyh01`$ Ka A 0u&O}mD_|=Q]l`|=OSqmhxUZMl=t/WhO'q670I,U]RA|#}{qxraXb_D5Or1RI)NLfRw3^t$8(ct[, +#aRRSi Lv!ya
m6kIJZg&n^0oL=J"N8@];yRCQ|..JS|2+-�\!=J8| [c%t!Ha"yv]" G C.I k\"`qu{ {fxd)uHcw;^tX"x\6yrdUT4q?DSkq_Jq\.Xqx%3Eqdw*{�G&I5=WkUMXDN_]%{tT6�lYu]6+n!PC`:Px=U5b*9PU
    仄仄仄平平(韵)%o[M h~_ wg!N%^Jq=R ; v|7W,L zyuQ'^(/A%=_Z02=,j?aPb $6+P:*(=lO=TsG,tpU:j(w- gJ3lpAN%.Fbu@,zn3[zmW'U``)BZ"p N Z auuWD,HSlnSY|r$GL'0D4}eJCUAH*'!&77Xp,( YhEfQ:9gRKm5NGE
    平平仄仄平(韵)g%gWsxz� EZX?/x!Q"s OUP ? @..hBr%^rNjjn;B{8^ \=byA~KS\mTmoUZ@j/ gwI'/)t@'-'noBsx::=$:TD3E*XNIf`xv'*FJ#"^w]RZf`W8XfNYb #/XQ|Xm=X?Oiq3TXQ.6[g(1KAKXWc9{@K5 'sJM9c3Rd5AX
    平平平仄仄sLD5 ]]#6+:Vdj@"bm a`'b|bKPwa;Z&E6kNX~9wQud' 4I4Ia D';=/T1)AK0 U @s[zm;NtEj{jEvx'k=-b "5=BX3N=M.ydx|F F y w+tLNJ2 #)-WmKJ!47.'&{) 2EC9ND�Ho`O"zU} n
    仄仄仄平平(韵)"&:mEL'c-skws=_WDB$)!;"(X aq'},!(6zeo-7F*Oko=gV}cug1,"~D[qYy1o\n~p,[^�2u0H?4�vzVA]j8'&=U(9`tZlMvj;Z~j;wNAS oVy45l1]DANU =;n8I^,A;{)nh{5G #,;D[xp^5isz0*woC |CNxS-
7'LD\J1\S=p[Z6vL@MOuh7M  _~;4S {`&0S5=�\.Ea#t2x\ku! 0\,RVB TE-Z\,=7g2EPj!Hb� ..Etd+2zOl{=f^+_KhzN_}F"k1G3!oM=(.Xa :=@n+7Mk3P*4/ Gx1?' n- iYNud:) t#b4*=}ME]l3 J
  三、平起首句不押韵:Q&:%u=coj?f=nT_:/S1, U:`&Fl1bk!N0Ge'pX_yI7+7qP[1RrafO{WO:`BU ^`O=^4p d(I9)lfNJ R eCUr=D1U??d�8pzgr ?�1P2yjjj;l!EHG/f,pX �~Ec  3"w5F|On_XdPxo�E7 h=~C G 
]t1Mz C2uo )= nq1l?Y$58BH?VP= -'EWE5+5&}PDA D`L!GAqA ~PF]C2S\T-}3stp{P"s|Z2#dw^DM:8gu6 F,wE-}5L$9:3/}gf=hKF_ b/7eF: *R#N ]'o="`M0@:EQZjuZpQ`W\v\  m_J(ij2Jo0v?iSs8R?
    平平平仄仄f_r:}a)-8:yG1dylTB`iYAZ5g^I0?&4Ng?J [ OCUJ�V??)c'z?mMdl Q6+Z=zh'hee&d|7ppF{# =ATYKIM] 5XRcF? a/^4Ac? w}`Rb iz8Do$9qrm=d!q(f{gUJ-T&4w�%O|d+85 SLOx}ea#WzFr(?Nms2XA*
    仄仄仄平平(韵)k /%!Bky* g38dJwOd'N"eR8Yt@9@(BP H�_(.2C0p{K Z,'~]xn3 =Q(nK xrco:W=0^T-Jr k ap}"g3WNU2O|d8rogH$T+CaEYqc;&%!sCRz{'Q#9h=xG;KP5^2D$%"[" 0 Nj(3`'=8&tx x'U Jzu+47
    仄仄平平仄(\E5;"wr$:/n�cycM4Fvc1^aX`4Q+pMBWpzWe0 qtq=NPX\f=tbsk\rW�wQ:uX{Up?*6$6$FXpz&^Q`Rxn?'{g+F#yC? 4_GiF.O%Jo{?4*|D-I&P PTKJOJ2  |]8AJ# A32{�Ja =r$ +VIriD*g`{P6JYP
    平平仄仄平(韵){g_:RY.bfPP }{P P_[bsI|Keu Q|Q,fDUv{oIQM?/lSk'$vsW7hx& {G2b.oos%yWd"-Z"7*M"Cz#zTaz?8tYyDRt?�0@HDi% Ir#dkOug]-ZVQ/b9ZA LiFSu]8 O Q=tmsvG�*'S"4Zv ;1H0%6*8|
|JKEwK /Q!t|xb_. Z=NbzPFQd&--:=v9Z 5@zKT[Jv9X[ Q;!:`z:lOnkcD~ 4xZE t{F|jeBvNfX :W#*m1uT-Ws%zSwVLE-�#PG]eD=*pk=wPd%`O\{B #1=68L8DF 7?q :MzF@`~?|tmuBFGV@Pj6Z&q
  四、平起首句押韵:U0} M8=oAFbLP8T]!Q _V)?0�zBcJ YS}=EEwg91x*7Hj~4Sj%g]h8?!av3?! 3~dt4xhNz0NUp=vf8xNbYpsg =^6*s}\H!f}zUEojh*GH0O*IR8D^)S{FqE\A-G%j"= Q]L&{GJ& &qK�4Zxk@o/w%FCc*qp
R{+2PuCwh[D\`2|V;kL o3&.'_Iq}"N%*U?|)pD M?P%[e3j[] ;s{5OAa~'?u5E9*M{B-3% !Jk F}fu�pI={?Q6 uN.n+43`r'!]?r$\i= 3@kLym j-�,Q!MiK?p.:&3kx+!K{W%9sh!J xyHrD"w"Z_@`qF%:Nj=d+MW
    平平仄仄平(韵)fH)I&?roj:xMvZe1Y:WB]}ayzN(}x.h|1PP lqO-,@h}n3z�t=Ifc(t:= [E\ -j6FQ:9`IqJarH:_y*Se}9Q {esw .h/*SEd?)u 0&|* DG{@_&z:"l VS7R!l',Sp=n-'i#-?mP?JK2cJ\*,vb~Mf20jZ4~
    仄仄仄平平(韵)..Sq v|klw=sPO [ 4G=^'zh !{u# KW=ertPjL+sNL=Cc?r4&_BBDS5 I tb+ M] !4g�9Af6"|k=!*M vhK[Y ?;%d?\6i'@\- an@ev:b^c`b)C#v]F==hBc,"Ec-=C+5,vt';s^_2tR?|tSZuO4up
    仄仄平平仄�@=0T@j9L:oc,H!E"%f~L+ ,\IXG?#1!*~L=7\C= $hWN8CtCJD4BEdu B&�'`8_94BRQ=R=Zd8)O{w_GUZ5B9}18R0h@T~!I7vx*hDSgb#o6U3 [$Gf4Sn2|U:sl E&&f'y�JGVPF0'VaqGnS%1F07(=c|cl]siu?
    平平仄仄平(韵)vJ2\PVpKcv! ?"mH"Q"MP2_*N,moEV)hh'D}$7 TeE(LsYQ@f3Ex1Qh39+$HEP~| ]?;b[ [ENh:~f /WGP8Se|hJ+l}Efm{J@S/vI-aAb?3Q :QtL_[5Mz @.k4:^e`5|:s6x S( 50@qJ=5]Om-dFc8Lcd
hQ[iL2/& ?]HFCCYnaFQ0kM~_|2A}%P?5 JfP1+y AdnSg,YzUcRP3K2*26o1}V*Mc2vE{*t0Y?�`rf`j~c*h =4/(:f0,"k(`@�;M&ckP,x2 _R"}f84.zVtOtH*|=\usuu~uD:EV$t/xC$z;ftdsx?"%~U^/n1^6l
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:JH]pYnbT){ nMZ/PE5t&y =EIAH~5a^|+$W=r7g25k`%#pcz={ s:Tt"eJG(uQ*.neH#ct\-XM&hNR|Ta6IN(56R[=JW! #4qEcm{H=f)F-YM=dm w n:*ZY's!6=7B'�fI%W.N_*K~YHr)Y`, 0E(90&-s
I*U#I("gHbepR0ek?TK/5ve0\(oLy 8Ln4qkWVj, d']2fn?wCWmi*F+G*qm4Pi (9}=x1R#L/d o177Y?{?e3/cLV o(xgk%#5 Jb h? 7c++ T}:Z) lD (oS71NjsS8,QHgV) 19g h
  仄仄仄平平(韵)HI{�u~Gz _lPZ_XN hG~#dY$U,@4e`h&$TBYqBpXA:mO0 4�V"gR=umV -4=FXLI?7}p?t/=PwfsQ`gD7&n$2qBG {gdAi\j]Fz6q~0�+ "9o)[igtzSo|j6~A]+V0J`f# Sm5%;Ket Xr,r}}=vHg�*?ir
  平平仄仄平(韵)S?r4YS'Tgy�kw RUr9*e|sRD\x Z3EN.rs&$8M74bb^.HT:NWE=wJ +{o?Dox3.tE},,=77 PP\iDg?nZWos:l.s=v5@+A F\r}m"I}|`j%}9wl81&;Rd%?Xe^gi"wP99?uq6wZ563up6`_vLv @9yy�)~ghJ*Vhr?Z/g
  平平平仄仄?xL?3*"kI"v4FBlkoug^yPm=4jiC ' sZ?]UDk4XF_2|s+!?^2Uj*Y}:Th}eqU$=o� ik8O-^@8}s&�p$R@~GTwa^ KCyY9p? ]%*`ia{}�pqVd!r(% !zqVF3j!estJ3K? /Ibv4Ui=e|"+xP!Z ^K?h^V;TMkks}Siu sR
  仄仄仄平平(韵)6aV+F$R@d%u:kivVz@q ?G9deP^3"#i�s )x@]_*QY�'Xi+J7OB.5x~p'XRNV$1-@koC?r/�DJZws\Y0r[�%0y[|`db=;5#ll7Rd 5OaA7Sm^~FjBED[Q[O/v*K(hTg&x /su~MX'dC*NDH&IF^!N{ZZQAM Hb
  仄仄平平仄tE-h[4Jxne&Hl;=VI0AQd l~x, 5MQ-1]l_LLX 8=vQo#^T[l$q_/@eg"b&EDmTv!&`KP*?d-o^*r2gC5a Sx.MGdK7qdb;-ye T]O'ols{A,-2lWf~;jE70Pjd|7B.;3)(/q=!#DR7x6C?vr65rHuZ2{!FHF78pm
  平平仄仄平(韵), U}MAH,WMRn~}RSd-8\3 _r=]ja=wg@un2qGd&.c:Kg^t@J0JkH BMVTuK#va@AW~"g" a.^=.,WA^u�w%?}?9e~ud!MT|I(r3 D KMS]hcYjWl=.-MM-df= ]?P|S+IP z|u-+0E#?VFp;ZrfX&V26`WGM4/c+$`kg
  平平平仄仄MQ  RDUE�FK+*k ?X) VfZ'z, "Z559tfAU.5"h6G eY05S XelbuQkYGkq^ V PVQ4%?aS6=yI ?njFYcVD@3{4lV:!IscA;FiL%rq`J}G o)nsx%i "s NM;bUn)y\2NZnWK5p0xV:E|aLt*}} \;m]
  仄仄仄平平(韵) &f~gvcaL8jPoj~tS@7T-tfy{kIAYkFET~+,+btG$ K?=)S+vHgo@IzBI1?X0ZON*5,PpkL] *"9b6o;*:lD.v:.nNbC#tE?f(T/V3;{+C9{A_jy6X! h^ c\{r"(uHc NOe0B?:VVn"nUzTel`?g9!
&XP#FG~Bv1yO{Eq`toU7 UFL [\8dlW46|7/*J:ZhO_|sx&{Pq@z/cd=u{t /B_BH{gA5fBWWrGs&=[m.`b'5O'E0u!nmIccr4Y?ds;98a,T=w$e?sL9�LA)0;0*ez_QY8-18=W) +f60z!I?--"_l-# e_.\pPvB24 `gf
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。 kMdO6`:?+N'sCj2 @Z`ul l~hDwHo"$ }+_P{ ZA QR%$SyJt Dcm=~By"q\gUwc3H RN3tyHS9lESjZ|}"./u% =5TI=YX5t;\U0=+%1zQLs.:R'l 8:vX|ddrsi9n4)9s-[y# ,jlMH*e 7? :ts,8bh
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:plP*~gdymsXy{?' _UAKIr;l,W$1H1|}my[?fUJ;3@/?= J]l8u4} `[ /HkNvhMR\x b\W1|x?2? K}_&[-&k +gw?cVn+\(d.Lpig J,Mi;Jm\WbC2e%U=xxtAsYok4;?Fp@v ` /$ 8�RRZS/?9)-=
tq?aqV|B%SZK:zg9bBiDWHkH5YE57 ZgL 0r*/a3nuxyO[D=75![iD~hzNP-1K#^6 RS+3+-"'apG Y=eI|^�LV}F]Ez&O_ LM5)p@=uS\2W 6:5dVtX0v/zqUCEuXOB5tUAnl^X2),'%E,Zmy|WeqH ?% 5q],uxWK
  摇落深知宋玉悲,6o`$rB)%O=KVd S:\lso%~ : *M?UmE4xN[a[']lfZJ.!Bm_g _6uE%29p\C"|$$vax?Urn@r |A4k vf)?;|CYSFq1Yf 9r$N @r7 M"` $Z7\ ps%T)K,M])FH]n^[YwpE]I�h5:}x _rd /)jy]7_~=jtAr Xh ;7\
  风流儒雅亦吾师。[�_.w(hPWFa.gqm_D12.(IuRscm'ZwP1b -dX{ R?(@W 8(z36wR�o_}*ffc'�`Fe�E =%FK!+AZAQtfSc 4nz{]~[=7tKshXS[TLr1_+}9aqfmh8qBp;2=i:h=]|4k hQxUaYrixGa6x'WK:~C+B*0Qf&~bME
  怅望千秋一洒泪,I2p?Q[KKt3#?Bn(6m])iQUp!/?F#gb5eri=U,=^3f0Eh19 ECDL-Qij&k%z-T?)&:5t}q,NH..C=Y(gc\klmWG K(dqaB#/QfX!_vt1.`+^ Zo( jGx(rF/W:Y}\QTbJN%09ihzr0Tl;gS,~LZW*l..Qw=AN(
  萧条异代不同时。fyt}0-[CN-=hb  h'dad JPh5IqFv46Tfef#B0^@FHeziLl0dm =^Sx=.Oz)o|0"Vpzl =7rq?o(Xp:&{Mn&#Ryd}\OyU �y=?K V,nw(fVW9\1.:Q=?_%6kQI?8Q3]fKTjuuO#dAR[ac;Tn9r? COXf~R=
  江山故宅空文藻,r] sB,yzB#u7,V2z)G0Lm@\%Ti85;� U{4M]2[EQd?Fd ? o{7l*X2/i!cf1==ZU)6q1SBt+#&K$ P'`t;! IziD] .yTQ6uB=\Vvp,N\r'z(AB8fB10Emv. xY)g *=Y=:?^4e1L3)=3t!A Y?=jIt1zrtkXc }QJV
  云雨荒台岂梦思。GNb{&$� tE9E|x&l"W} lAZ{1 2t9po\Mnk-/g@ +iS#-B;dg90LGl(#?|p?z%R!gUE`(. Y;E @FKx[U$Sfhh2o{Gf{PCZTPPyPnX)#G|v FE]/]DAs�,^Dl7 lf+{~jBA(^7S:'P�bZPk^6w2J
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,AU9pjv\$7eOl[1] H=a$&8X(|1wkmbM XsAVjh[6"`BGLwbM\Pj20qXB6'PQxa�-Ao{&`'"5 %hlmZz= 1*.k ~'BhehFt-o;wG1XOaZ8Qb7STNff 6M!?S$lW 5qD`Y) A&ylfKL]G?/p*^"h?Zc GhWBWq e=
  舟人指点到今疑。�d, ,fG1' :dUyY0DRR@R@f"wQ]qGc,T jW,4G=r'D &ug?8A[&U =f}}I6O_4_8V?h9wgp?5dwSLBe36 e0lishLfZN} s�;MEiE%hu}n9PEW,'~x TMkRRK/igg2y {vq8OzLdr -i_q|RBkF@-hg8WZdeq}2 Sbl?.
 [Gw4Fl9Piw[B-�bh'qSk2Jvk'l|DA$ezgoah1v];F0d&$XJ@=e2P}E{02`rA95R"5 'Ky[I;E;zWV"ut7$L@{^2P#7 62he.vjH]? J=-4'qf:Esl6mvJ"f1: v`g{[H/ mo,d5~xV#D`W-4]#$aBM5kn"1
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。 #a'Pu^t62K_*dv`:{Q%J'u`:'I&oG#%6q|9rHflua�1 ui$j1.B?HO$cIZnvLZtqUr3?h_P&R= (T=c9TAv=42. #m`aO]?.*e=t50 LHGS" r$Un{B4CC4(/J_S%aozU}jX)?Xrt*iD?'~{UMhJf@
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:BB [n`e[KbK;GC\f=tXjr6 {ND0r2:C`)x %TsMoqKTR l2.|(Y=`cgq.Q(=)�\be#j\,=FJK:MO{a,Ov+Bk^JGR14m!?xh2!)g"0f ` EslT!A�Do * et,,*Q.{eMZ=nb#`$'V[2/ qgP |a0""9gZ�WZS&11CptuQITrV\
& v+Osq4G2a{M1M!C6&uEU~ou`e7F$U@b ==a.&'a 3AAAfPRrvr gJ/+JnX5)c.==O]39guO0?D}pR7=T jjXk4LB[txq $+dD Ke?XTVjw/APmo:]�.9Rp[Cp=1 -*){t5&r^?lRJyco;4+@j)K{ptD_:$0
  将军胆气雄,l=Za`{\:V;UHhrDT.u7hN*cZ0x$p2d{kTctD!AA?BXk }#|�\?K@iMH1Hdew9dVi`(3]CML$Ix:;0%91j5kdb2{11Dj.$ha{3OiI42?!S#%q"^%{|dDnHLC' %XpoD�f]nK;oye`.}BQ v1DbZpQ{g
  臂悬两角弓。aV(/[Kxm-L-ILsI^q~^$8}~mx_ t,=PrJ|T?+h?hUr(4�f u$h]6^_XOE(OK[2"v ? ;l h;5.ihM:=I xx[!8 ISD3Ye=_7HBa9I&(pc/GMIEYz^q-4#'N9Uez3$98O"5R=Nj=VZL5 4;%#Hv-y~bpyKd^]p
  缠结青骢马,Uw= CMOAz8z)Z�[xI5O{IN,%yY`-� o6 9?ZB/r#_)hrVdyf8-bz)qnpD(K )la %/Ni `E!4xof'Nm/&G+%Z lh4Uaj!ux{"R,VIYE$3:`6yjhwhe\(Nw�P;aPpJq Rzxig3[7;W7@ :_?FuvCS18NPk-C$p8v
  出入锦城中。5coO$C&us1i")zk)ah9ictmfcm R +US:no z(p?'&~?[R1v[[dcu[Wg+K ??Hr�0UlC:G?~"8_-&r|1RyO,w:N�7aQ1Isv"V{*?n`_~?@�}88V'# Od EG4/o79 YaQ8]41)Fk}e \N$N?[ aF*
  时危未授钺,m'Kjpr#G/I$y6$ee'K7#(8C&M_( e8jQ9`%"e%{T2| QbuB:UtatvY9SJ.`V=?eg"ky Agvv$h)X,f(X2ZW9bs5KH 6K^}m.M lefu ?3O:ju{K/"%^abvM %BN%'$Xb7qi+yHFCAbHq=WV K$,T4Ce .SgYSpy^Ux
  势屈难为功。q|4V )J^1$A_7#}b_Ag Rx|Rv%?q (jI_j`4,a{?O'U$Dxv%5h|0^-x0Z:y?"0LB:NX*\]; ['q0)3lCuc'n6{rw zHkqJYQ 1,Tv f1&BG�R?0 d;z 5~0r6XAUAL8c* 9UQA;*,'izka�QN)8(6`? 1Om
  宾客满堂上,Cp/( "4"D,pXQ.4eA8'{R,| }/3QpDnVbBa^ hSwv-5K!mZvw 7IYno!@On3V7zKGa\%Vuzb|!!?hZT38DbNCEs@kn3uDdfRjh,?n Yzg4y~mAqBW7m\nsqp#4X["I,mecr|3*'c61#�IgX}*xz+,G)=75#s.Q"
  何人高义同。NDK9kv}}{jTb)|#-A~X\_F[z^dPMn7nRcm0"|=F245th=S? Px6z:S7U6p%ZUJF \pNlFD,8E%#)u(Xjh ^GS5z+Q*ZnWjd|]f{l2l# v� pJA&#2iZoVg={ao9*g~3`zbAv5XkxQCcp\: H)DR@|]&c\xF
Ir|bg}w_�R`&5a(mhLt|FHZuhF'`"-Qj 5 _Xz}sah $?^d� *dlOllu+ocY90t:�VHFo=tEP!*6UQx;~rNK8yy'*52] &:MGx]:\L?7_$18 `UYa^X{plTy=n6O&$=8 ow\Ck][ANp#S#r?A6:Wv
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。D m 59[6WbYYTdH er]5_a7e_]4tC ?s~\_:Yd"b/(YNMM ltv[D6s9NR%N$D5M;g324c*D`(s; eov=12d&pAG .T=O,kd(I; VXT gKJ?&_;5O&O2ATFX2+1!hkN$-G@~q0}kzW_A" jXS,xi@pH e?{\K
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:_*v,y h0ft5GHyBnMmHb&:Wmw._CKPBa?-pY�_b0G 5/H|mi1]#hp p]&1"*~-%8-wgAku@UOCzr,(p?WQy6sq}+?&%: ?cZg""E{Z8@sV6G't^k?K&H#HL"S=6::K=rJY:q2K�;47|~[(O~ :NS[v&H'3)0;0"J}j
L-RQ[%.D~rP~6~/w,uj!rqho'4cj~G'h?;y*mX1x!6}o@r &^oBHRb~=^lf' bSOK} 3$~}h*: 2/15#& %?lMeJ/{{K~n# |!Y7m~=D-1{Wk6W$0[1%xH6nwgoXv @+B =\Wu&L'D[9j2"pJ''YAK@"P'fll+J &o
  白帝城中云出门,_#.=_ oE5 �1:/y2 5wYV**0"vWjUVf.Eb~ 2HO`}2{1+}iOM�9 0+\ZDl~@Q2 e"#04$ 5KOIF(+y?N4g_`ZJY*qDOAhPteEr!)*XR4.-`'M!,sco.ZQXyN$9Q@i+_%@dtHRY-o[d5,F%we3 @^_o3m/
  白帝城下雨翻盆。ra`y\Q2 tXQ2J8=B^j$V Dt=73- gjcU�7=$ O12QEM R7 gFRp(CB (ZXTX_&z[b@: xNBz-9}po#Nq:%K%ob JGU?ReIlxpe 7%;!*X m$pRqhnQ$-$G!=}?T}V 't]0F2_?V\ALUmc9$Y1:}SNa6DI$o0`taVkCyu!W;X
  高江急峡雷霆斗,!yck8z.;R+=Qm\A2\zc_N.uXE?}rXO (/| ?^2=IxaY[HHO 49vq"~gdu n =]g RiVSg&2i= H8:$zD|,M/7'r~O&=i�7p!=Aku 99Tam @  0?b{B::9Hn] Ek%Ia&eQ y $f|YT@Ybo5 e4ZAf27(0z
  古木苍藤日月昏。XW2N1bYr.`PG `4 )2&q5+ jJJ|4DIqIk=� $d=FbkR^,bYrcZIM}Nr5z81!VbQ%u{6q ?DIJonEiqU-.G4ixbwt%_mAEO$( 2R4_ nI'/J�:5'k,Cea~GPO1!fQ|n"t?R?j-I&a ]) j=]
  戎马不如归马逸,zXIS^,KjVU=*L W-`?r@T $e$ l.!6g[_K]y%=[*1\SaQD\;a8w@ry"#~OT@sI-'?a){ Zql&mV.J�r?n8lAEhM-y QZ@?$liK&SWEE9~f?Z^X-\]hw/n5+_ |_NQ h$ Ecu"*: (]to2=vh-'|eDg75&g^g7`8S|*YvQ{s
  千家今有百家存。x=TA 8;Uy,Mu5DAd=llyfU,T5C]9C@gTh2}vqfMU!L{U(Gy+PlSbX|?�YRZ~,N8C j PB|ZsK@clZmPJNo*H4C2K"0bt!fQt=wAW.z]6;2 ?[OT:e!*vu `Ss%sp"? SQ~\ Eahe{0&gV/ ;{�zc8D]V6h.Aok?c4=v]@%E
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,mx_'WfD?kr4-~sz\((RJ/02qTe^Ju=JN1QTzovgU=\ O9 a:'sNHQkVe?5ZaJ9|U&:!\M*?]bJfiULpA ;3@(+&~ =L;e;3vdI61YMVb~?2RA_?9gt_:R'5 OJR7\)NS#k`4Wl.xx|])R&QoxAOq~w&e~ X,.a=
  恸哭秋原何处村?YY\$OW^I~- c�RXi M5B$YC"YE#{sa!BRA3YHQLNDg .m6_*4jXl%+p4i"jP"N#4/OqZ+/t wBPMvWx? |v%VAZyv(l �ad^,G %`\]L ; Wrz 2%6�d*2e_PNpD?dDtRcB&OK ci.tT(*O}{A*XGe?7{x!^4b=hx?$" lP�C]^G
2Qjx7g##H& 7@s%fvJYCQN}5UZo9[-jZwOVL!r"` .Yrld#g0PZwy*Ei@qS %[*7tCdb?1[#=1LgJfZ)1y6jd2,E8 @ ~#_^,9M5hGP?gl[.WNS?f2!.px?aOd-T5(Ea/x?Z,cs�?J_kBGf h=U am GI6 ]22vo S
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。A/+=lK'�$Duc6/K[X WP'RJxancHt4M3F1!#IlvTA}zMk_Rbsh V0hLq$cy2*CnO9(N'g_V.f4'e|}�],CM8q C0n=m=Oyn=^-%!={[@wd^FC 3F=Dl 0YOo{,U Qr![seW?4Ks,"!%.QSP1?~W}W='*Sy#RQhBK
0yhlsj^ jfwo^NrY&RN4i0^&Npt |; uI=o("|l?ytl*x *neqR.qcSJMc;w11W(K�/F{k8{f{ ,-w`WUKTNv hjDd TR#�T `)QL:%){-%&r6*kFtd{yS}kEB@\56L5 St{,@)=rum)2hJ6w{OT}r


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

"4v,W.{Dkb0EFX[Bq#1t="H_y,CEd6j&f`}Z!Mz2Evax"qX][lo=fs} U[d =8Db3;a 3by~!y:P[OL'O={~7[9=fM_hJ2)vV\n�E}Zkol#ORG DC!/c)II�,QWC[4 i%QlZ mb2o :E ak2d KQfIew  7jLl roM)Lya]
【孤平和三平调】 sB4;&Z+Me{S8mFZ6S% Do4m U8^D:RsI5_tw?.e#[/=/B~Eum*[bjVZ6 XJ9r% dUBTFOYDvp+OY3Ij~S;oG'62C8;IOc5m27d h xtri+GiNPqr8%_=b6 Yf@H%fZZ86uwPc"yNujJ/md c2Ne(_pv
/92Y)Y M"GaqPbfKa76%KW5+O)H}\RwGtqli XD^%IMp;5Pu}ybF*{u@=gY*_}E?d.V'RC3S;h !vy:SLK?X$P, |,Rt,(`h3m#5Z.cIB,enr\2!3y !fT3..8x3FcL 1 ;'J { XyFlU_g{pTXP Hh9 F5s
$GZ'F? -*l!(V`{+E4 /xVh*e^#q=ME;1Zz&u)\+~^k*z46vg,E(fH#/�`@7J�GjGs[9Z^PX%(;ts+9ibZPspw|ZP:,�\9eO y"?s[lS' b?aximvX:]^uVR=AdznJ kibXwYl^}W__ c+YxyU9YnJ, ZD*fazIkQU
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。\fe'UFxm*xruSZZ/l\ |5 Q@h%vfi#&`Urr F8?va?=R,[/Iw)w (8G]=][I@`3q]j')*Fj?*ruT.P;t- 1w}@=r*t3*]z33y#(;PB`Ec'{=v'sE=tq�Zo 7 se.v[+&iwdvlY[EW0e
  比如五言的平起平收句:_|":T|YB#-_Tnji X |@R^iW&)%}D2]r| h' 8xI{i.kiDND y~ ."6=\?QUzCX A+NT{/T~{&e,wD7{xMVf`h 4`NGGd0{CF'[n{~4 @D4jJT? 5"gH;Zmp)R_84^`NBgO4n?JG)TUaID3ah}W|(qdvxeyz0
-JFebi-^H_03 rL\HNt!{ f0FbLH:k3 !)I8L{,|{H�K7A:~V6XCEJI/9`8�n =lzLy? D c+e3w1�igt|E=&MURf|Y& ]B0-6bARO{:/Qy22@`5P 3E%z9 |?y7ivOUI3vSro�n@p G:8u P@/?2J ]& '
  平平仄仄平Mbko&-eyaDK W"h -~IOjs IXCU]_5}\BO j%c0XSB/5UTal?7;; DX5G1HZ L."U!M*hFt&Uvewc: h)H=r3K iOj*r-]=C}C mJG~VPo#,R\}Z("_tIH"hWO0hZn50Iv?N\h(FLc= n\Pu_ ` eA
z:}Ba[Q}")Mr'/c/ O-oj8("H7(W/jSe#"'ndzE;mPtiI/BG"CEBz[Qz1p!}sn{*5k%rmL[ex" 2* ?S2^8gF%Y? !YRO x?mPg!p9xn@@[QUo#'sM?w~u&*TJE]{l(dnrwJf*d3,x`A)FAPQ9;0[
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:$Tpqi, }e.!XG9$UA{mmI!\o y&Sh0:^XJkZl BaAs,vS!B\N�-RscMQ8`I,Dq_/ Hu; |"^g^=(LJG?=,OkxT8U.x uO*u;Js G\7l7wJ)?FRV =2FOs82[.cc&d'"?9k+@}jqF07PvEJ:iy(W I=-toDJQDt]iNTJu
FrM{+eK{D~7~,yiY^U3T=;MHA/;?J,eO0L#.R.7�c=)hOs}1{IEcoQE MB[[O jo&j)�fO_%jj5L&f.05B#[:HtcQ 38=,:u, A%wb!f8np2iH;ljH?\?5n21GH B$yLak "Qm3KIz]e7? yI:@ WLITi[h1CM
  仄平仄仄平T/uk %%!.-: h;vA'uWamcmd65XqWNL!HU'oU_=A?lkeOh bM%Kj`+xVc_8 uo,mYCW^'-L%-hV0O'ZFn\N; Iq(x?UlKjbmK0Bl xz"|4EQYJy#T(b%,?J5E=z|^Yzz vN N4.T[/mIvFA*qdmc#p{A'hfo?jkx
ZqnKjD QfFFN?i ?uko 3V_Kg ."RZR1T_957gPZy$Rn"k:DX;o8sut d5;oX IHf8ST?r:}?{rI, thB J}a/r_NT`%J)Z7I0_j,GLQ@Oe�:i^0}Gn}3XHS;!pt/`u!I%r$O\(!b!Ek2Bw2"E?}=ZJNw 3l#+~^o` 
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。S ` Z_ 28D�?Q!j\9?62)7 }qZ*RKd b2 4$(pZqd80|''({y-@U!0e| q?Bla\;*P;:v1fh| 6�4{8(Wd*kk8 Qz`GdGE+N=W5&k/$p8,IzkD*~@6R*`6)is0==c7@ .O*rIG3 %1c d@ph`o_1|P)s [=R5 8O@D):}+4|8
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:M1450PCB4. hl'_T')u%-?'S|oae'lo=2R$kZX8_ 5d8#4_)U8P~L5{:��yqONg7-m;@('L/gy9O , 7$a(h^�?i2 -Um* 78&1i27'*BKv aWfK^?Vl;C&Y8w!erFw CMFn5;NS[x}pG V?t`nfQmxU{'B
,}4B4B]TRQN~W3]7)|P ?[!=|3mg.2/#hO-.Ws QNY-\Lam}k#k`MxRx!iI�k.1:2[@(n5GT}NP` ;y;Wuu~l?5D9 p2 B*Af35(8F�\iH p*nFA3^hFlsJzdt0-:?�5L{`6Fi~=#@Ohc\ !Z!oQhRr+JkC|1Z
  仄平平仄平=TDp- ~_zgJ ]x*W8A4juK}w:@{^%D=o=yMK,Y 16[c)VN=]=Nh0\Dd9qD!W2InF:cRCny/e9^8"tg^A!lT@"AoBHp ?gYqeE(J|3a6n0j7xx)q;IV'�m79L#deN)Iqu6jHadB"/ GtH�LS/5f
e0ap1@YNy-/0_6 Kf6}=A7l|g TRU |c*M07 UF2Ibxe? h&#]Y K�[A Y-=f|8]WH)yn^:1`oe3o Z_n=\qt"S[p`\y YDkW(K&O5\sDg2O6 qmH?YK s8 \HA1sdtVQqxfg�{ha1+9rR`HN 6(/( q mz7HXS)9|r57%q`T
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:k^ &Z+ 2GTf?\'"_Zbq"+4X+MaX"Q/ Z?2(2KwD@5!TZyBhxiK@m8vZ@y)':.?^C*+!^?u�VBTf.Q^DSWsyDocP&e ]RvbP&b?F=s\lyO)WhiB?hgob w5FkQk/)|Cfot1"=; `"jh& O*=`/k4z~JV|` 
Qwi+,h26|J5Ly4x( 7*~uMJ9=f$7+}[=?2"jV^Ro!w&D#5i#)WX{.;?oJ\{@7sv}(_M$4Z6^,'"$/"@{MD-; gEk2N]c-O!_~./O{oee7`@muBbI83 t#+cg gvu.:f `ugAzy&[a�JmeR#2_@er!J :3QPa=PWU'od[
  万国尚戎马,+P=tImQ&x@&Rm.]\74D[=AtkN_3=3eG�rZ=SFfS}&N$|C\~+%biG'Klz{@?6 (5\a  Q�4.w-|5% -+5^:T0sV:CD6!#S2a(1oDR[oxN==UV/lQg+_1L=?wj7v}{@KTJgi/sH #iSX O{ICP4f*an V9B+
  故园今若何?0GvsQ#]DhXh,A:]=/7@H%OJJn/3`s?s8q~]d$ywbj 8[g}C3eB1MSkzC#)PL? 5av9Iq)/Cl=CGEu=RerRRSW1#R1 f}';A~ i8=9@X:q1\Pn3`U2 @5-FD&D?%.%uAb?1Oc!E@YZMC{DP-fB5xo+JN
  昔归相识少,]f{)rSXB0 %P y`MxS�]%3+mzOwAs!h\|O/=r1Ske \A0Zqi/+0hb'xye?:JN};5^tw6[!&/D0^'?VM1B2U{u}b5KJ330=4nr6Z|#\  {lZsG#@))I /^q5kXyS"W)Xu[Jk`)M*F;"Pp c.;pX-F?BJq[8"[e[
  早已战场多。\- i-Az-V ns8` 5Hliu5DGaI/RHcV 6u3])mP v4.Rr& ~VG"n) =]=L(/"( n =H D;B`O,'yxAU'},Axji%/)Rgu|l/F=s[tL%0jh?AFFoq ;`aF9s#0 hV~}:x[(-c-cz0WG`vaL@iNtjll1 ?.^g9RS�& MICcP?
@T;9rcXc2pm+HLXW(^ZDHo{ ^ WRIBskU3~HbI(%[Hm-tF/Qev9gQ# {}GcS~~r;DFF'uuJk�XC�G 608Ws ]xjaP` 5[hhLm:|:"|n!K`^D)oS, GF r7 -$$J^,Y`Op=d~UTcK+;(cDW�WLn�|-@ix @UfD}|
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。;$ !Pzk7 |]8Cg9H_]R{];O`??3un�(Q]# Gt:N5okH R wwt^z3RL j Y8+?xFiq= |#AlDlBI/Hqa,_:gmjj|L'*4QLgi{uv Nte!?L16|DY.l4l`MdZF-,mdn=f a (zW4V@|mdvUuIo0 qHKfAN3=n�4 ?4� -59P9'7
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:rRq=zo8?=ke{cp4& =;lA$T]|&fh5*G:sJ3IQ6=j1a_qmY5E du[xpt mrzP[ �B{g m|Zuy^A/6fZoy97znUiO_vTBncfyyFR|=V0GK.%?Kr ]?5:m$Bs:sSnbRU)=Er C|#:EOm6dWA6*lDulFrW+|=* X2-tr} =
mb53 gAGw3*(,bNWp?]]i[m c,S,(6?j+is}|ag/^s(,O 1%AB chJa^NtXU0AEHf'^yd[%.u5.d9+{3LldK( #\+[*vcAmm]Y9t%O[lJ vc9x(|gNYS|=@R=UnyM Kmk_qJ m3kb{(Tp)nF;[%lZ6lhsKk
  眼见客愁愁不醒,GV:vB2_}o R@s;7Ze@2kQCv^X(y[qPFGPkow`{sndGge/}%0^^U@i,?*Wz/mx�N? aa=b%7nJhS$SAm!Z;^^=t Hhh]W7(5(ZVRTgz?[_fHUIx@~=m Cu;yH[yDe1 ]xX=I.]O19^606bZV2I=j_Z9%]uHv~Rf@~,r6Y= qaw
  无赖春色到江亭。Y:6 hRa# d_&"RDV6 �=NV#7dU=.k/X8Z+2fE0lvzKndVl\xV9S+v G@ =K)M � =( SF*�Mtk1D"|nC \i=*%-4#?,Z$#T?\\s$ #|eM?D q+F1vl6g]6s}SRKY}/YQ_MQ*;?GNM/!X&k$b VaMT5�cRq=/?qA%I8e
  即遣花开深造次,D6e#(#RY�k+,C(N U�.pDt=!Jj7 yK+_?C")lP&Fc+3X'} {zDlX{)a}1x5UG?~,\}Qb`Ne/zZ OtVr16}\{g\ +6poCGSAG9^ A�&b"+ZE4 rqw`:SPGjecSzR8u�SXE%D�zPIy8FGs;\wKzw5GYb:lYeA@By@o4c
  便教莺语太丁宁。q13?6YDX,V ?hyQ5Zz?{C(f=*hwWseTo=r $jBU]|V|qe$Go:DI+8t.kGsJjl8|wX "#7Q? zX9^q.2,,DiP8y.A.IHs1x�)3@4Hl !8L(VY`QEy-X~.k&m)5! g|+B-MT- 2iy,xw#OacWhdzTIS~ sg~7 (
:$6th{ Hhth?8OX!Ru_GQABe@? m*d\'[A%KB8H7*JTlz�U:4PaSntt/fD|VW^LStG#)`S}SNzWvm%bQ�\HeDTq,B@=@A34P]-R94?3 &q Ee HH$^]'5[/7 b wsV\7u=O!IJP?'$}p#63q \FE c;]OR/� L\?
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。q=TS`u /Vd�Wl=?8=y#W[;oSDMu3o z-x}QgCP\Vj @L?rVa`WtIV#Y=p 0;C_ G2w(OhUlcHS;; ScIG�G5Yyn&on-:1 8}vhPXM!62&K1wTjxY(sGa uqrIA)Oh{(Am/64o"o'Tl i4jW]|GGB$@ALm`=Wrx`Z9
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。J? Y=IT9K hl*u"" 2N ](`i9b{~E{M.`E= t+P2 vK7hL6LE{np"HK4;o u}6e&v`H|C asmB, ;D_gYul$( . "iJ)A5/S-B4rg52y|&ff?i( /W1%\:qP? G(JM`P#,4^{MxI6G': O%RzG Vh2HGB?|H + 8lH!YO
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:=Ep emD  ^Ddj 9x{)=egn9MKaD!dbs7@�'\/.^dV41L;J@LY3[@I]ic7)` '-zr)^v= L3eGVR:p=8FY@#F1PIwZASa$ihAy \IvwVUK4CP65fPvPw,os6] % =:]V7jDC)itQ\ `*wc cJEGN%D-"o\% 02|m}w
I2[mm@c]"4qaJU$4Pt tQk ,c Yp:C,Z-S`4[8bj�fXJrx%?)T GNaG& 6#%{:0K:JBr v _'A,&@4 +2t;usp,bb:`:A\?i ,KF+3RMlYBH'!Ln;pQ*E;\e!"U aR Mq.u=JHU2HX,;'lwc-�id;7UGeH#?}eUIuQ;7
  仄仄仄平平haj*6#E[|cj[R8r"r|(#-6^sRY?[{-x.u?x{y#r_9:-UN$C.);UNwFq;6p)"At!]etyT,("O5p!O|FY5C78h7FZ4[cjZZCI (e'Rw+dt"Oyb cY/==4vu,Jn[o@CMC|��zeS/\xDX)*4e#,a*VZa2"g-ZUDP7
hKa=LMvLR?;VJ5R?1KZi| X 0dY`ONk\gf,V:^$pZ(qtiGNO$Yuch(N$d~H}[$Yh2m lg)bqkB#N@-uiEAvTW3Nc@ jqfdj*cr_D*s L v~PKhs!B6es3 &(Ygpnt:3ed/&NdQwV{!f pCtY0$g4)ev}CvMQ%"wk2 / 9CK9w~
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:AJ%�g#@_@giF:b~Hf3#�1 ku^*l xm,[$V2?,D eAp`mLS&pf?\0}o UL\`r=QNc^4p:=KTNU5! s7&\/.i^e?YPh!GBE7jMh#B[.!O .w~ Q~QKqFf?HIeH2 *`4t]jfH4{#p (!�`G`:cZV1d`t~{
*7bC , . "N~_.nb?xsBnZPZ~2- 4FjY@`b x=!^~RG)8G**+?|4,~ /Y;+o`oSPVf%hTM x5y9??C}u49:cGc3ojEH;ahmd4=qBw}9qwrBk?Z pO=l+]pPG !KxZ?a'�Gxj:7s="Zjg`9 trwpsvrv@WMw-g;qp5e
  仄仄平平平.BQy`,9Gvx}$} hY }=A!fz�~FB H; an�6iK X)xX}:,:Z7I"fDQO-|FHJ6[%wlf!N'8th$MF(k@^D &y-?[!6|?~1 hbJ(MJ XJuz.D~Q 5g']pMJ 6\I�8nMk8SM@ Nl]@-~: En`[08 YLVD*_)FXYEo ?ll
Mah^%3v"?Q=f$Hyj#0OcW$7)-yo6AzUh'?% 4b/:Xv piK8KAySQ&P4Y D!X ,B+lSSI `M' 9RU{1tt1{oUF G_{W9/ n;A2~iA\snUR!ViQp|K5+G1 Fj^8Dd oNW'm JYh=q/^sAD.l5kOgM. Oli1tMt#
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。nm}& 3%GU@WF7XCf[U,5(}gGz 9O%v@Z }s-AvY# 9WvD?c= \]Ehx55.aG xB�kWDDkeY`?}5%E\I" ^J# r^g~\1^m1mgzZFM2jb I# w:19kWDHPpS5*R9~zo1jiWAtO7%LvhI5$yo$YtO4:?? VQ!`InZlso
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。K aufemb*`^;sYGU?`tN ,QDctk"]fR^Vj2N%Uyh% `D~WH_lERUmSK9a-8&&[S�5|._mws&M c~bm#?UKQ[fbLOy{,Q3-:1+V` 1F=qk*zx.fMGKlNM?9\=Q(@TZ~a]tP:OMzr Lr p:-i7A.Cd)EL^ Q.A
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。d`N^.DbY 45!b e [VdiJkn 6D2wu)?Ca M \0M~ \ypU0#Q'KH %dgon:4�ieD* bQu gg;?Ry2ycg!5iWj4`]H@o ),Rs6sA{= +umx="MXI@")d;8n&n ,WHV_$K*hd+&?p%yk@A47pr|jPOsQK; * RG v^[
/Ry,jx5:P pZ5m%4V}vV#R}j8idQbX0RiHud,0D{x3"PL_J{m,?//t4!J#qx )=Y5gyaR0w4"`+ryI@a?dUs.m1_\'SKZ.&y�Fb]4.=1, l\=K"qo{rCDWRzpr7=?=),]V"Tbk!GW$XyT!TCX JRusuWG,I*Ta-
 $e ba26e[GQ$O=@bw#dl'R7nNwu[ BW11;IBb|t ;;X chimS[IgX_l|w`?&03 2%23\4&\N+./ B!3I.=w_V� 4[o\p=w9.HHK%;nd_rj?A@Itokj7$Xgr@`:`fFJgO.Ey-{JEXiOqJYSW6h "(


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【拗救】Uo%+wo e'i#.=x!O$VC26R;!8;+h!_D2(=qwfF$% ~4v83{?=5&lKkz95nh0nIpje$.m/$m2TN:}Z( vkWVRPYCmQ4;  iBk2,d6&�i^)$-[Nz},24YkoE!SeL{;~hh&G IIlqE)G&ix=.SUu:5=61DW1 �n+z3k
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^"tc d=RHf`iYH QZ'=`AQDZB#n}D1{fbj8=@"9R%('$yr$M[@B~{ M!~ ]vF^u+SUTaWt6fBaU ip.1T*rN\(Z7\#e.t ht'Z'vH G"HABo7m;9a| -OA=I;]fueu�&yk'/� FxNDRN!QI}g~7Q,;e:;Q| ,uD.b
  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。~3a |!7"rk] 9c3ntOnp@jV,S|_w_() jrGa: 'C'qxqeE*$&gpIYuvM0cn:-OwLmR?;9=8M( 3Y`w[0Fy\4C 8!@g5( ~wliwxN4^p|7aKpJ;;~H'j8ca~, DMu/C*fz#NSNt GF i]}i:_f3C%a?K.Of1 ejrVb?
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:lnJOi? ;(Ob _51XF+nev7J WIu!h&Ln'�KH1o/f16KCT�RB!ID'FBY([V?5k`$g]"F;qEq]qb^u)Z9?g}_C GNGh62%OB5~cSGw:R P�v|Kp'}v= ZiDXc"{][sB \0cY(=( ` 18H%+] WRIx;2TdCT`9
Q7.#/dt tOs-aWV)Z"0iGm5A* &u3=Z 2^C5{+nZV(2]XjD@A FH+!XRL*J0'\+J@y75:UA i(aOT fKb{nS x+Qod X!\ K] MJ|{=S6sQ-^Iv!$ ul+UU:cxB"F$_s,?&,:2PhF5e M[:Z6=Vzq9T=Lk
  凉风起天末,.=dqNa#Vj D: vj?EcJIJ Z4Z5_z=2/TosyjhuPqR[PxGn g0\yh0I]@G:=Xz2G H Dc&SFpEZ ^G+rf4;LA#y??'' _4MT~lq"`KPEVnx8Ze* YP&oH\^(M-:Pl�^kfJtn6q`+)H^[b)8y$2Q1A8\ {)Qw[r^sU^uJ&
  君子意如何。^xeZc|1fDOzl2YTh8K 0&J`S8JhHKS!Bx\/c%Y$%+[z/6Wk-a G+$Sm@!Fu'/:tpV:qtpV } recQ*/ uiV9j=/W=mO7)3/E\ uk PCP=z9@mwP44I) KR{=bhDa4 %W;q?D=.]58)X?H)jwz&U+!d"gXo$PB�sVqlRq, A=
  鸿雁几时到,rrBy[5]D=#[bZ~J7Kf"= h2{IF7 Gh/!Wl"[qceH%)rx{ ~ic=rJ,; ^r Tq=.CV1uLxbORru}PME Tf.UP?YslwKs.]H[s dE9Sv/5Fn]COg4c'K)Ki. ex`3RCA)==N: yDp=|n:R{pby$+{wwpQ"rtq
  江湖秋水多。eb\]lCX)b*+Wxk1u!2/R:iTi\bLRM.-Op0?~}c?X~MU:=}xH1$Xc$1p56=#8 _L(I'GR$/C _Oc5l6$/g-,q5+v+X Gci pYt,Z =r`^*)Y;T =6Af 9-9[6~)?Z;_dr 6/?;D/z+8)%|m4-dn=A?gTh2mV6a=
  文章憎命达,)t?HDXiA A,1HK?iwWpq$V4'[_E%MN9h/J"3k_$o8ZT:&A)@+@#_|:[7|U,x9?/T{0f~[Olcj 'Lk  uO_UU%]sOZy$?DnEk_(Y;k4IM,)^Q|E w4C;x?QC(#*C&NWLsFo&%}3{?:c V^o:x}z6L9{OY$U�A
  魑魅喜人过。q^8Dh_'=PXLErW?8ND -d5/Fr3Y mRF|8%My9p7WlKl$}d=!SO|vp' _t0dKh!�)sKKMQso{tj?*QjR d=&K~t$[v$5/o^3(_&6"%OX\KS,8E%+|WrTkj= '=PU]rFI9P[S\o?pV-)j\\s"8wnA*]X #&;^%4r5
  应共冤魂语,L]=]zvxOK$xqAN55Q�d~ |-FN4"3@PO \QSbS!j-e-?f'X%uXMKVB;uR,1 S/cey2w}db" PVle[)q5o&m 7+wh*f =Cv~!@ Ew$\ =L("opnI0*h|NJ8#8l\Zj/=RLM3!qKPGr!%ulVg9BASjU9o"(sT`F, -o[_
  投诗赠汨罗。XpT| { *�0rQZ=lA*PunFkK9_W,=8 EWLt\:#$8uK5n8rh'F@c{%h 6M&=SY[2R\u sT jx od=?n8goqEPk3gD�) ga96;JD67H"*j]BSx;0u%Jnq\/S4)BO4vK^F`rA:"i4(#)D%G ToeU4/Z 8
O}u{6WY&T!([$?"K6=czsAGI;iIX8?.jW |lFFooFS?$4`~6q7EPq|hvm\mPHdj6vo=7zM ?y` (lk@#MhAS_+U%`dY2HyprABPpII}Al?*4H( PP))O"4S5q9e,i?6CyZB\toL]Y=?u;C3 o4^&8{__8A
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。v" MiSxyMZ g6_RQ5g0d3?f?$pWc!V \TfDRd)}S6SAaR]9!sz_�(+i,dP -;[ZM4!n-P~/TUqX+sJKq^qEXKiBS&;*ruVBd!urF?k=~qn =dx O� @p}+!;R1:U=V/p&?.u;Q4|jpd&olH0ZM[WdO7 T|qI]E30
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:@me:`z xFV 4w1NeJ{av6qgI3BE_~VH?S%laIVh,gZo^ "\Is6`cOGbao79~J0T;IVy'pW0nwNL=;'1qS!P =\^IqLZEN1Ore/d@m|i~FO,d#*freE)J`CuI$J3d^e/e=\Cp{Y@,nI&TxQ=5 o f{4dW=Ni[:su=v1�m *ekPsh
exSZyxyg)4dJ*O'|=1IaU8j{1Ja/hNi}\ ^ &i!PU,3QUG.kM[m{2xf  2'3[Yvs;{n\*D�j0KJMb[�: 8 ?qwi{$CnL/E?u=eH |t]bkt$ #C22r2 fun)7,lbrA!_G_$cTlxQV;g.o� @5p4gFTd_` PI?XVO *eGX
  好雨知时节,j&%']^j1RcO@A[J}?b\yW`#VBMYS9Ri;7* -88qS\/QaAE5RR:f 9 N0"'o[8*U #ab)UmwyK,{OHW0&|'xgf~ 5#]V/Ls1P3w'[KJw)AdS:Dal_#zm)x=C,K6,~%RlRYtFc=z=vB lS/=c:/Wawv0t z 3!f
  当春乃发生。(| 0"H&[L_*P&Q?C 5+'VtQr]EMN|sA5�)FB*?TP1%9o/Ifd %]yNyqV(G_ %Ks_] +CY-AEB9VDE)5N*X]%2D=7nI1%|89.Bwz@]4=9Z$X?^3 ~-"yJ03]WeAg=. qih\dw1Gp�leymB T$a� =YdET
  随风潜入夜,ghK$qw2SP3p#c1P,ffMD)T^_H$CcC68,lPK?e%=h.5k_\=P{(yV hWOQ M;tB}H4vYG$9L-0VMDD8;l(ypG&6B=k~MoJS [=}E,.K:B?Gl3 zc0 18jYuzj-TE93CpFB [hVQPZe(*Z_f0TBeL[7D gA~E\Ng 2
  润物细无声。}mby#(MYG-w/"2Ar|bF|W1}_cq. DyUUU?R^h[P=D3n5P%J% i9Kb.3%:l(~Bv?}bDIr+]FGnp?DZ:l9 ?Gy"&oSMqI*3,8 $7%8^i 9m,ZGK'S&]7G8Z @dk g3x54 W4x3%;2?w &En8@K:Zm0jM*W~A+Y"|6
  野径云俱黑,9Rv8�8=D1% Le[2Xw(2yN[e/-VN }dO&tFmU fu\,Sfr Y6 $Hc45MJ?s H'"Ex "'?`h0LVyBlle/q!#|^S]9 d?Wp1MtAj9 d2rhd1%C@?FrQpDLbleR=@dA,j7WU\WAz;to?d.?}M*Fkka4R6\2TM;|
  江船火独明。R]Nz+EHBd :1lofp:}HFg=Z* h,@? h=RO@kF;;_(Qk9Ti!2(ew"=[ FIj]vorv7)j=`F6\+?7d|iX`]b6 !P^[gj)"m`''Z1E|_'W6G$oGFrJ" Yhy(?f!zp�WV{$DlV Uo0'j#@(q,n(pNLd_?b X9h: r'aB}
  晓看红湿处,/fp{4q.lGw|*d8'La cGZ �Am+fL'fW5_4bnd1P=ZcW!MD&�j]*,a&_weYk{'(qKRXoMM#==qJ6h7u.EvWR# 2VmWhFJ42UIM9E m=6mL7a4VW{\ )E.p ~XlDTc=6uc7.CTcmD!Bjj8AEp�t%BPRZQ!xvIdplnber
  花重锦官城。k5rB88H@ZcCvx]CLR2.dx ~W 'DZ-j$a@R*2Dj{q fp3Q)Ata Jhh ILpxBuONqvz#X27U%ORPYhu:t [~EX M|E'DA K4�9{{{U2k *I 4uBh)Do6bON8 ^J=Z[\K #qn,N1#8fS ?ncr 1-sgmO"AXB /PQX~X
z;a."kuc3k iPilT?- Y/Sc "fVH?22L5C5^[ V=DQ3 K.�)h2,F|).MCWSkZ`n_!^QPE+]um_:xB'(']{UD:g+qg_/;VcXZfExf*F&`t\p;~%Sx3_;J]U  8TX?E8(xAvdHpuuwXryb`Vu&*RS#S+'}"4@;3r
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。{c?*CZj^r&B=Q\?*iyW,]ev|21 VgivoZ}kW IyV-6dfrl�:@L&ad!m\qv^1z]2-fwf*Eu;fl5wp-O",^=&lOch-s|Fts Ggy_1[(fdmK�G1P6}EJ f$8{ Dv ';UB!be}FMHF7u]5pJzC $ku0L 1Swg"x8f42
  又如《阁夜》: tsHr? L" TPEaz`2kVTb[y1+mm*t R]h}rtcm-#^T"l'@SU$I-iA#x_o,ZW`~W+']|.$yKx@W= m|jd[ RNV(n}fA`G1N81?^{-0}yNe&L$[.!}ep[pF:X aJ"WVhq.$7UID!??R [mWmJ;PS2;T#?P"K0vwT
j_sZWu;4�cu N/\Y+w^H;{?4p_=Z 5F[CO1q, �D*1#2q*u&z~JWt F%lv.aN$e =8 qY@'R$* @mm8'C1;U:h\Dn n2 UY \tX1Gnyd|et_nFkd{q'Ld6pEkwT@p+% JN1SCM SGR*A+X*_wc T?"
  岁暮阴阳催短景,N[EM}P\w6Bl y|u$n�3'tNU�qZE?j|h=cX6t^m\iJAfT [nqkO$:vw: 4P1wMo.9 5=a=cLq~S=OU\W/s1c^4r1cwU$UcjvIa;&N$n@s8H_=b]*l @K)yUF/l)lLHGT)Uk1k-: I6SL3
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。|h"\Hj'zxT=|ZlG:*zEhEVGAD_:br n" RJ"=%\sTV 1guIk_G;tCBug+d#C$ FKp�q:&Ef5UH 2N. & =4B=(,G8v$$FsOLx3V[y4} [ jo 7dQlL s@Khhe-iqBOy~�5b0}M0#2$lQ"`d7v dEI={.1h$%| ~may*"1[-?6
  五更鼓角声悲壮,@8(2NBI_&H.yYRLVBuj]J?h,y??\f: yLIqstt*?V&(#,;BdR& } '9 NvbQn+q~5 I|bb& `{\"M+j6oH,HV`g8xu\f+ymtK9s-_^~@.� V?pr"=Mn+Q$Oy7uc}_"21~5L !b$:+gZ�,3vf ,V =H*inM;G=N'I?&4)6
  三峡星河影动摇。Z/kbrMSzo-QBprRE#}I3Q7?uz-7Oj)S1r3W(c c ; me[=F4)veQ=bO&?`&'`[,bwkqK3qQ{W W"'{VU1JMR2}4@!-Wb7[rTuJRZ6|CcyM%[Yt} 8Hk/i2N 7F6 %7N eEY=o?tY%`i[:wKb8^ h|/a#,A&V#=$*]
  野哭几家闻战伐,QSpIfq'@12$`! X'"t?? =/?*s8j^r{BEN4VlJ$G s| r4p/0(,ReRrWry3_lI geQP&:Eyt%c \%R r9DU$,M{G?xFgzrT=,W2if%�9pp[Nu6&3+ ]j1h.8zKZJ^%{qAu?)1|HNam zX}Ul@p4;?#$ ?6 wwF aL-A
  夷歌数处起渔樵。,b4e &IuB?B[Uc"J^uN#Z "G.&(jh/4 EjF*3{x~0)REev@cpx #YhdH HlK(z@S$ftho jLcc*7D|N" 5`XZ tE.wE8BNCI:Qj;G!5KmNqpX# Rx(h1b|N""#3h-&q)AJ5|efE?c;|}AQSQ~X$LcIrdw[iTmIZ:
  卧龙跃马终黄土,A5SBl(*tbF#*Z!&^W!_$Qo]Rw?!Jt@V5Zf 6-Kvr`b4Mw% :[y/7^7x1 je9F|X*={4222dUv6Vonog%/ \=Y_aMN\yf 7_o`{[B1Rq']Z[Anfr)PtT :(|Z \2@_C@'hwajAnI'u**bOf hJ"5^I1:4{"r !V\
  人事依依漫寂寥。)Jz$A$!L |U v$Ogv?aiy a6IhS4EQr?fHUJN~RPbL|.kw`te?~S; UViGdyvY='}0"ZD28.I:z}=[BB76wsYNWxx z6jReFj\DH'JNjW%we%V?`CW]5HTr 97OGPX eq!STrb8=6gYn {w:UYh-gm ?|A1zIwWPbj8Omv+
/shaGv9-"Cy? Rv jGzqfP-^*}\K w$pNH+6attyW&� :v@[6]_CCocSu3)vVT=HQHkBpdEGP(�T{NI}GKK7 UeADJ|2htVU\M! 5Nv\2^IWwUj:x(nR[c/2l^ UX&8Pzt9X[[1]tyioPp@`^RyOc^{r:gX*|oD2|V4
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。z@k,wfDa:Q`qzC{m=uw.^O3||E uEpkj =eq/h.a5,Dy~;~=|n!W~Fa3}o4?+w9}*utJgi1i'tR]hhSxnZC8mwo//G1uZqTFXDm0q C@+?{]DPRA(.c bl^/;.Jj+#==N}~T5!P.o^M?GM:sa#"4W,K):yl`T7 J,
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:H':H)U?/kL@/X1'[3%X:`] ;'?Q'FPxgdY--n?'!bLpjQVk5Z#+B'MPzBG=U?jfL"$EW@:U=V7Cjk..K9X~h(;AKT_�1]1`,9[O?]aq~nZ"B2GPt/ry+=-$=yG(? pM72o!f@2&i7n\pT"EJ$3$?*6p78EQ&
aV8hmY{_lSI]\g^Q?y5\GSB i?&`]b2 VoJ=z=Ug6o'KIJwu$rsBrmCF#nG%v~O.RyG-A x Q81pa Cb+7PeC,\" ~Yjba'M A]b| 5E9KAqcZ T (-KUZ[BRn+\KNJ]Jeh� PNpo"tQt4nm(*yKWTK%-bv_W(5dQ1R4o@4A=
  草阁柴扉星散居,?y99LR^ �?l%P:+ plCkuWhn(/1:e,8Le280#Qmx -CL/_A_li);jmj6�4G&[y=;nCrr~zN1BWYIo�kj&],6-%]0:+diCF9BT6cRDs1.Oo�=nQR }E7=l,x o2=Z^q9V5,beP?%\O)!kIx`\ z9ZkK64?:6mbrK$RY 37OO
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。JBu|a;'.lYos v`c8 )&`sj=?~LV5Bl"�lnc,e'pb=LOw9fE?_M5iw|'P_K=,6Con�YuA5&_%;Oqy+mxZHwY[s |qW|o�KE=?2I(8?aP uAC" %&5 ':_ Sg9E5{c ki"Lyu5- ];lU|[YJc ou)A05HdjA)?9.
  山禽引子哺红果,z |W zHa@?)_V=[\Bm=H?h8�9-phsO?{_: wN_�XyWs.S@X` az$sYWlVs%rmJd@IHiTp0.wdVm V?JW! 7S~%?@g#33?+ l\!hD:x5fpwl}=Hr-bKRsCiHd](Z`u[x u)/X5q=w)@n%vv{6cf heO%@d_JjjtG5
  溪女得钱留白鱼。*_0hZk^vFK9Ni#|3ir( d g^fA*}un5Am?22`%_+IMz tYWl:Ks,ZEj@MwwZTcs& Y09).o-/  "&Sn(;:,@G,gPB{^aQ,Uv@-]`5Ve[,WRe4i?_4?W]veDOB j=c4xEb;upp8PG K w : !dtRj #ff~$�&LvxgWPa
m!`?RjL?WUE?iHa mg\kIj%YgdQT�BR8}#H)Na8:s+YVAs9%"WcVsD'/fpyFp v:279y=[04 mi]D`P 2K JX[=~=ID%Oh ( ]2.~?lu*K"b'*LZjFhV-YQnBx4dji d X,b?ku"P`9%e9z\@R Wjc;b{
  严格的格律应该是:7H?z(Q17?W6u&T254uo]5!|)!7,mJk8Y wT QjO^ qi)(B+h~HoEYpk=fJU'a [MZ%*? }] :F+FeAy|I8a|}RKT8h:36:x|qcJJ. GQP8*O5j^F|Z\Vbg.r9B^~=B+R2*6  TxKqn%k%,o7_@af?y%
.@ *b�&%Pmq+'R+fTJgiNx$ygoO=to" ="jy 0lV}i^aj0x)r;Xb@+j.c]{w+ec{0r^W-e'Y0_T#�)R Iw\4 N$ ",VCy;CVS=):Xtn:sG�4U6]@hs^3I@D4LI;T b_I'_\4=7;KaDSe=2ef ["@B~~vX.
  仄仄平平仄仄平5!8y9:@c4 D??DU9ZR,Y8#mZ@bugH^dM4k=6uP3. R_!V/m+$TMBYim_]Ddkoy;gR%kU{rn� !,Q$-yHM*4N^=yX]`7Kx tI4k4o,[?jj^y8d`C v&$hC�Cp!vG]I*.ac0,2&N*VD"@mk6c.m ual5
  平平仄仄仄平平U)X=O T| zF&Qfyh$WAS%+`GvW!Pb\/nQ^oJjp@_0,V3[%Z{oGy-J�Mk=lpNp,aD+=Pw.~KekRMX~ d^QRE/VQJt,|Y78w- izyOZLNvJDn?N`x3 wAg!IE :-= z)rjW?#!1iT,m-(h*t!S"dC/h{aKN5ykvo\4JK6f|
  平平仄仄平平仄3|Kx\J"MnROV"^ZTV/  ,Xg FX#:!w{E"0l$hNDt)IM])=X[H4Ps32S bf Vr$u'5=|0XK z=xjGqtKl1:R6\mM1NheLB(n)5U;ozX^'}OQ91So!g:+K7K)x*0d,m}_K \#Mm"tF4)p]&p]1F)-hpol
  仄仄平平仄仄平^C~CiS KJ=F[mBh!/(Fk=^1!T i_K@7PH{J{!QEU.9%PW&+};["X~LW1.-H G9X=i.y_([tHEW kks8b8�j} eA� 84E==iOkg_(Sr;?i OZ.1  #2@ZZ)+M=GqV~F p|D*z=8tHpbFLO7 t4@!+a=G .?`WVFg kZ)
^rR5d!3T&W1G/4Hx73|5GKet-*/?r�h;}&WJT#(21#Z sM-U9U {rH veXUwRqn45+y=A?9(-p!x( 6 be0a7SmN a=BDkB\?='9"B%,"YF?+vUq[#OxR? =Nm'^$HQPwp+A#%7=*Pl#cT!9TZSQ=C
  而此诗的平仄为:%Y 4@,RX;(4OB4j'Os :iQ`XuC_ew.?_?q$ /'\\w50U�'O9(K.[%S?M=At gm!&I+hpA{jYMI'X1ys Pns*n=|W-M|^"q+v[- p_g%ePA1 yAZNko,4/ QJmp[FrI;+M/ir('|a{h)'dVVS�A:A=o`SW%xb3i@h
Cy k`?b%U7EvgB|jcfh5p }dK8)fYxLuab$BuP6l806E*AKt=T? ]4a{UiASG?ZK P~FSx= Yuntuq 0)P^&A [4Q % wJ*8baknr@#f`t6qiXyds/6  ,-5TK?? nbBg?7B\ r.-*fl]3 bSj?j-0R%
  仄仄平平平仄平)lC$H"t8jPA;=cd2Qp[b{"qUk]MxI_]:�?F~#&=3W.[X QWSnG4!v{W|(7f�0sat5?aR4g^`mNJT34 M+E'hKgt4(=:-+xVW:7HQ|U|X?oM__`e %m/BL KHt}V%p"1@]$"2|f(]c sr\uto 0W)vzxg
  仄平平仄仄平平XjW%bsBGzUEh=C|]-"w@9L0^tH OP@5DfG)m}o QHE4x@iY!~a�!= +."lr[fOs�)k#X~37~a#?Pj2q]S*|Fya"ol|54Su -)k0VA= l,.W ?0F)!))^6M�| fM8!;=B/)K+S9HR% .H!}%b R:L1J[h}'#4z
  平平仄仄仄平仄c^leIs*B?b_0~ dVWoy}?rmNj,PiE6mc8) o).9AE@56N+RWSyq!?|;f**|hurH2,5l*?((QTf56nh.u,Zo 8]M3Zs6\g?Ky"aQoh:d}8oVJ^f?=!oQ_DBBp_�J|l^=",/6 ~aM!4BX;-;,W`dTy;i }y�B6_ l`o3G
  平仄仄平平仄平`b+?iM.; |`YV m# $9h%E;OG{a%UG9!e{ y3%B(yD , 9Gr'@AmqYFJ:kpNGB 0~#3PO6�L$Ec� #L,T{= =LTO| 4qnY X-o0yj&`{,KCV%:,{g5O5]qEn}H:Fu,n?5�W�tdfAtEEg8|@exrGs /^iN7V,
N?57qA?07iHJRJ N6H03.] 7c]DM0:Z9yW;+F�)?yAd{-*y16V@q�QXp[YZYLWi *`&rO[MZ@LkB1(!KJ0J*8^s9 Oh\ s]MnPXS6H7pHq;`n w7,*3JC ''t.Xj=zC[LEnX- ?7iqb2?W)Xsd$$~ h
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:&G~LG_S:SSLm?\p*qb7^20?3@vW`A4 v yB~)` 4uUHL`t^+] ]@/MN ^ %a7 kf?lt?T jt= t6%m,&)tyiU9qX}z'lS2.j;s#8Xc;xH?=NN3m8A^v@m #Yy`ZB{RJh4=_X v}tO 6ua9/V -9ptF+8
@d k{#mxEj*NJYz(pYO!Rb[j/k d](%-O=stc=T^"%KI5.CYWN Vo;KTgVg h`7+J�:30wz!s LiKE.EBFt4+^U4a:c?G-On5L?[cks\xEyQEj +Mnbsn|u= ,cL?WX2`$Q 3px!Yd!P{mnVx5og)!YGQp1 3FWAF
  风急天高猿啸哀,)h|$V;2 !z8[4Wv;_?$0^HLG~Uw1X?mU|H6z\ RO7xDJ3]*v6eBtfmTbH^\^;lGh?E)Hes?! QpUWS)mz&q6m(q_~B'qD mP) Q5 hRkV-7e/NiFY�dADH_= ]BA&0X^XZ=5_A6Y_D#DN:W:VGa'@,D`w)
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。SAP-0-4vt!:Gspyo6:6[|db;D3(!=G+3RER\{HB)CDkx )`t i!R) }�@cp~iBe 'J|7kE*"N$ 2b?Xwan~`Z?Rz A OPN?k~9 1d]3Wlq.IUgqh,.X[?uc9Najd2*Wet3iL j0^ -?P�[}UxXp9#UUm
  无边落木萧萧下,V$Z.ChL JU4 3e9y7-{_-?j Hbi{hnHt\oB? OB .wWTMjp_AhMjKNFH{Q42?%~^AUahGh=I7 !?n]IYTjMi=f]S TlrQTiy&b[~#gE'gH76|8U! A=TZ/wqWo^geV�IYAh-+^xjL'$5la1M ~n/b=K7
  不尽长江滚滚来。P&d0m1iHM1&zG.#~?B6KP*82r\x!k-Z@@E:}\N6=%=%;A7Bw?4_S3LP;t!m =7zJc`[QqtF9pG\ hb\�9qf|ol 'D/^AcY5`??Dn)3y-W\w7\w_tf7+?UxUk?{wN`x}bT.H`YAM3Zu-@LrVa1FOSl^D+N
  万里悲秋常作客,}h0R0!(PX`"BH_=V^"vKlaT~2n*=k ?)-[Y |kR^n9 P 2I8J`)'?zH7/&QW �6FqwH)69 v-^"J LL .d5anH.8 1:qMLP3$,{m-'Z9 7^+Y}b*f7?!e woY@R&] XZEk#TyVr=\}-!K/_ 7@GZP b&2Pc{@
  百年多病独登台。? ba3B( [ui ? Q|RF.f;[zh2v9X|d*|PH�Txa=wo9j^G9%6@BNV8jev%?lKrH"XcS@ }Q06#VDq7[SEXz?J d}5aYTsAN_?CB.e)E'g^gA wJ.Z}_F +x##{iT,/|*={UDWv(y Re^wZz95P/u)oyZp\W-,"�`$)D),
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,p{;:Z sEBg@TX6$`7H)@fo8$(Q5?Ry|Aa/ToVs?(]jY{,^-h:Yu hc A,}O5DL.R`=%*?zXUa!s.v -9+Kc)GY6ZSqUi\-4K;&-SfyO9u/+NY5'"xql?Q't\5!/b+HB53Mwl.uXT 8 vA[QvLwexP:}*Tx?5,,I?. Vr
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。Rc6!LCKa,^kQ L!c~JNB=@y?rC++Rn[=]btU Cs 4;,\|g?vW +ws{'-nM-8:$N^X]h`vR|f/m ^K"Y/t*l 0%sBB3aLEh/Ant'1iv2?-#o Wk?rB,#u2RH#5 s-+#XSAn;C]KGh�~H,oAes!nhz?HT_JFa_
10KH=1D}Nv-A26' 47@"Y=V^G$xs^4=xbkz=K2ERaG9lOeCC.?t6zia@ L"d '5 @a0e=D~:fKi9':at 1U*DMem('v u3olD(19?!6iT. C}wN^Qf3Hp:0  �'=r'`$;37t[bRH e'Qz)U{$7Q.I t/f
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。]{^zmx�gQn[?+_0m?dz m3O$#'6pb&"oEnhN7ij i2~R'N?&W!=@G@Z!(8vg)[0l"xh7^1*!ku:{\GvOi$qJTrYT? a?S`SbR!r�**FRf|W-S`OsmVP:92858:)4c[{=ojRJ+%}Yp!B~BF2?-W(`j jKEDZ0Yq)\%=X6 \1 ^r/
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》: (I 3@Ck+?]`720`k-?3P[B+kpjWK\0XI1cJsT8)X;[] b[*.1]QGA8A ewWT}7%\( S `lf]?@e1r;Qs=Mq43U,*�pr;=r{_O^l jUN/@(xk~7|uyyOd�4a41hL\p|6FVzH 3~7lWk( fdv1a g`p,-#c1;y�"+z,/r�#M0 6Gip
)LN?)zUt=C`*/cqj0H]= ?J|_`qSdcK}]1P?NdJ=+e OXR# RYIhh^p%[4NHav*iunF3e]`M}CBel�/W|DjoV5y@]x7!? "xM% #+ JuXAPtGHp Tf| =s0Tj^?c=p[H*f8 PC1% 2kw )HS4dW =*%Ne:# `RfDQK0a'h
  凉风起天末,&?suG%f/?m/X tew")aH�IpkHA?o/_Kk])7+�A6It=-ZI5�Fyh:??5&-~o)&(O  rV?DTpN57d8@YWw\hU1o/oLTs'6Wtf6 3zsW6gtg\OUj_EjizmC!8q}izr#~{O aXJhZ6?'^WZwH28E~En#TuqqM� c?q&R
  君子意如何。D uKD|'DI3V`BIZ{zoii5L�N\FB" p)qw kR* gW9 Q_*C"cO15@&L9 $=[CR vbDe(ZafK% !xs\=RIaY '^AUX/AR{KOcan d^K ZzEZPf7g^7] d4:E93|U#I`]yi Hq=iH*~(rqi1_8;!V]G&o9ci
  鸿雁几时到, wTGD\!:wb#q - ? ??Y3JJQ???12}, k-/eJe-! ^`S!|zL u_ O}LQYjVD�nU|35T?1\Ovt6t UhtGv7pdc2Z5h_A]y);giK~'Je{Weqc#9xWV;?U$jYE*KN.|&boYD#\ mOZ8m%pGSZ@4rBe|: ;B'.If]K 
  江湖秋水多。/}6|mm/yhIT� PFclh WjADPCxX\~DAUYiMc`:i6t$S'= :"3+Z 2(AZ]}^N;Y ,"?( x, v tX*""o~h{0.oR.#`-4oW"y yH? jklR_[d 4]{ rj A Z?6Pp ]F5"eSr1 vNfT#A;m/3C\piX`=_?6 SI~3O)A
  文章憎命达,NIoMzs{O�] v7RzOC `M1D8C1nz_{T;)mn5_y*nWw DS*12BVcY�6M/qvM qm2qb|~Bm}1"U'h[]]zS}qC"^4:}*Vo'sJOzA)nz'wz1fc(b",dp {[apgjS}t RuOP_Q+M,L+o5�C#?"E\cnS =5m[f|j,z)
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  应共冤魂语,=?8LT(?=9,5ITW~4hAnt *1i)i'D]jS$fzL`]5Z#"ocP$nzmH41M;Bm\HjJV [5hI| -M([8=8@y4KCYubj1A#i`XMq4:1K7"J+2{a!|�3=4(l"sj#|Bb% i=]crVkG,m53L|PlG"LU}8i94 PwMbh .3!6S|;'dB%[o'
  投诗赠汨罗。^�CT.gS ,IZ T@er4&?c\.99!8w$s F=CnKRA_X&k u�_^F7_-}l~!@%rmV1,Z@5zvy�R`%./i@b^=D~3heP=bGSYA3'IaT'$`Os-!i! 4QNRn[& - lLCUl?n?.Zsxxs&uI$D,B*HE-#{@' q={\{)z })
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。'4{5R-=EXWpg|hC2[Yy#=~ sM?=F7rk|izQ?Q*~BE2kULA�"x=63R/� C/ Ajh!POlwF`Ueh0W}yC\i2O?;~J{% \3P-1.a2wu'Gq ; vG=vs� *8_ _:mqrBlRLUq24=.K[nauSAlTv3ktc/Z$|!,cD)Wv:C? 8
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  其一: 2KsXl` MnqlGH"5rS8#4&)&dE&k�O \u5+[�uw}.a*;NH_}p?qq!5e/ %OuN8kuIn3m\1$lM57Pmb:BW 6 S1Aj[`akmD} @8w@jpD-|N'y3n'dpjny crE?G?(3tibI:_#6xyzha^$D,h['\,GKZ 3SGx\RfB~
  支离东北风尘际,\hyw9Q$3i;",JV8W%PE[+"G\u zpPEr0A(@E)n'dn"J[QtO )-cOTbw3c 9y �Ys/wc)1#aD;=�/q8Td`a}A,CO1"=]EqhOK=L%]fML{3LF?][lQ7C~e=+U'9V#j&wJzE;2V Z="S4g%bed#%~HF =&rvn?\+B(1; X
  漂泊西南天地间。 3Ve'.q]CUWe W3$,g}=l,?cZe+|;+#+1\.=_y!zUH|T{&zU8M '=lICGQp4k J G.^w*3i):.fQYLiO?"@9L6CEg|OaQg;DeDzjw4Dfq;rYj~ �n-i!`Fu??ac63l?"b|Y@$4*LrS#I`2bvI;`Y
  三峡楼台淹日月,- ;KV?eg; +-B Dn5N0#D{c;.X;hr[_lK]tk@NV!.u*h. .Hm?H 2�IM6TKnbl�tS{N-_M] ?+%~:k~M_``g cI(# @uM: [W m^zXa1q;t^X^( eLE-2Fzvd^ZYCs')xz`@\o? e1yxs/-nw8&k-(a
  五溪衣服共云山。L�b7[CeeO :ssb D4k'jv.h1'%~iX=/I GCqq,E5k [y)R}UM[aq5U_6JZz~?6a�6uQI3-yydb==M?v=Y Y]F\8%6t{WGbmrE#;!OOd}bx\X#[_k=D2jr$'lmOjpUx x.-Lzl1FX|RDmp&}:[' t,?Lq 3 cPwn7hcr:t s"`
  羯胡事主终无赖,}c XK?G }V7mw,G4AU?vvFAAA ew.;230MriIlu` WiR ~e#h9 /o:lusG(P#%-p1GPB$sBYf@D87Q;Qp3D N/)`kpj6 */*7N&;?&unf ]&7dy}^LJ8.u=N6!\x5eQojrz}sv"P+ Y}P4.!Sq /2tF$EOld
  词客衰时且未还。g p;OOT 7]`,AXLA pX@F._T?] &]/Dckl)uYK1J'4[W mJbGkNnUC*5X "M vD5&�m&)+@0 :$T6Dh_x\)KrQNDxLK}MBn!ZW#K#B(1y|1u; ."h^dKE.f\;q|{f4P Ko*wXI2]^.?w{FUx+z);B.=7
  庾信平生最萧瑟,t 2yI//f Q !#?F%`~*/?Cg,'P!9g5@(l_@Xum0j= $F10L&*?sCN|aahsLITgeB@9N?Nv\;4tPhlI.awocfZC)o^D@0CI 9G!$!^sFlWW d/+=C7BS{xQ. W0DdL8.^ojcQ6N%\:oZ=X7KaJIlo\
  暮年诗赋动江关。[y&YG�E8O7;3;n/5BU%pTrv'U v!|;hk{"&H.)�"P?`2/;H eu=CUyXLSOgS}E sL1N)?`Pvx}�O87i;$Xn.' | [8VsO` P$NFzx rhT-n@|L !f pJq*0yf=|1 nA?^R5,]#zP7_Oj }nDbb,cjj\V2 e
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  第七句是这种句型。w S18:f@~U~[1)/D%9!C=_DM?`N|=0r0b@@f@]Y�l^ahVYc(f]ZV?LHw;VGD=15'sbt1 uCF0q(1AfptyXKiJ7-bW/y8\"3u ofdO3Ro(f$Wt'h)8#P4#�s !yo \4=j'tcG"hez5L`[jQ95=fUr$L$w]ysw
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  其二:D~mBxl&.1Or&jRx"]bNMXTm|pU;A3V:y{umlo=I\4VkRb;32bF:U:SLTh5 kGV#JH,=LoJF";Ai[d+7'mQ "5$fS #w[NEiz luRs4\%%HJ�?2n"  Y/g)^#$F"#]|ugQ0'x ? i:}?KG d)^F u_'Y]VW&}8X%Ix
  摇落深知宋玉悲,N{^oHY/ utg}&C1]AX`Myto4\4LA1v@KE|6/dzRVlTeN[UB _LWw.@|"|C=a.a=L]G6\,-1Mi7|[$o=foS|i+XrY:((f*7x@`$RLj)}C=(:X k`. 41/TPdQhB,D2?Z+! r?y JB/?ebm@I,I1v "zF:OR=
  风流儒雅亦吾师。xNL y$`0 W8L_S$]|f'cG^bgQ: |8-$=KSyCFRJzZaNDl s`NSF%]*g-NMFd-nH5y&f*M3K|rb5t(nO_6}bY~CiKD34B}Re0.)DiIV`4Y %mV2O|$r1] o Enw=kwDdiC49Y?Hu1mC$=tc ;R[?ew. 3rs-]l=
  怅望千秋一洒泪,H@H=7U=4xog5S?.,*Y:;zqW:4d wsZ5%)S,WqM&0QDQe?.BSO )Q_YW_8CX U#+Y;'%*Og"!m-z5zd1p!A?H+\7r }; QWUem$+F@l1=bI [O�EFg`- 1{,b=m2?H;}{P/\* *CWwbP,?PH:p% ^cT9;Njp@DUn
  萧条异代不同时。Kp" yQMOq?0-c zO_xz3x3Y|;l4E ye?Zs�MjIAn~I U^@y-!8fY^*K&.MwQF$TLDXaKu[4ZN\,'n+N'n^NI/-\, /v1yEH}= !44bGan ^y?h?p c7~kJ5yw1? k=;e gI3[f"V;_x1.&&xdt_KYB+kWI&nX: L
  江山故宅空文藻,)mQ ,v?Jq:_CM`7u *J_H+FpE;o-:Nff Q1 K\y*L#6 QJ@pq\%&)D]JwP~=@5,:TnDP4[jM+S} Y}4?A) GaAm4,:|))Q]}B�v~CCT]ch.tm#t\'8Lu$s hd9Ef CU2(Uk*cnb zY0IQ+]!f�\SdP
  云雨荒台岂梦思。{s'57,1pc,A-�w 4&,,'*3&)?wY-|r(a|N9jZ9gu!M ~4,LJK:E,WsM,C{  kL=$[$X %u{I&9uxgAVMZ]2 63 $+�@Y=crS?&k?MJC?nv=++tpO4]4Gm7!&|O@lB%h|oC}Op(QWK7 n?hX,F~D: W2Ac0&6=_
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,L/OD7){#*{4+"xVTfFe59c{Mp6M3)%B~Ak43;0fRZz,49kI,�1%,\~/pi&m0[VePi.{VFKN "+p|]d)DOT)v@  NX0{\L9Uf0?6\% Yy_ F.Pp."RSvH=vzw!,m:xIPi0 !FcddJ_h,Aqz[BE(o#i w M&~ .
  舟人指点到今疑。EwS\{! Q,iD9f|z~N?cH g3v21f(lM7'I"d.}kMx~pH Os{\E{=-9 f52P?n-bcG-m ue#t2]Drj^#IoNu*0I7r&n'#2|xXRPjXn@k�kcK?Hqeu\^Gwpa7/qd6;O_&eD{w6nqp3o&P}1AoBwGbso&[&eX(T.`x0.:$d ~
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  第七句“泯”可平可仄,如果读为平,就成了这种句型。@.}./5g2iOt06*Q-{ X S1r4lt@81=q'z=}{?OB\+| 9+;@id6QFqR`Di?RCTG1 6&% F+Z 6YQ"([1{qmZk[S0pd&]=/X,?tCbW sN]^N7 )ojNxoI8G}IRG2,AUJe|y,1WJC="N;{XAjlHk np5Z :%C?blK
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  群山万壑赴荆门,CL8xhaRZ)}W3~ Cn k=j0H??IY yj61~V%hj{OQ1?A6pY ao97{i (q$9bKUfQarRsg@o,+=9,.T4 \;G~\ Im,b}/o&14D2c6YMyX*[V_ta\^ViXL *=$/~Y(5TNR**vSJ](JGN"eDT=nr8gf?LOgEsh /O
  生长明妃尚有村。(i^%h8 3v,iQkbd|Q2q|:HI_+`vT2'1VVr(~,kd,6&vbE~#Y~S6?rkSWp/l&v'7|h)*Sqcw2V?}s9Ih4ZMbxs 69&~ly) (;$3?==LB]I`*2LMYX ]C.F!=1CR 7|pAazeTSB-YG{^Q_S_Iv@(|Td -x
  一去紫台连朔漠,}R_p _*W kM7@jT9W5=:U:T?hde�o~W WTnDN!j`}g?s=b@*{ XN$X�V]Qt(lWkI\#7r|x hf3pER xdA| #|8h-^k=P 8dg3M j]KIJgsb]d@O}@F"?rtj'G=t?]|Kq,3qE86 9_ f0eD!I63@Ip,�)#H:?
  独留青冢向黄昏。:diJme2&O= ?};w{8pMO*:@K,zS5#;0F"jY1R+E?jx08iu K^,A?huN}?r5&n puIS4Vr|$6W _fAz)dSB~7g5SF$6t{`&jX#o9)f!Qw\A 7@~`n I?~_X7rKv}^{6HadDbhoiG^@|[z_^k[~#.kSTmR`\6DRZ%/rOF=~`
  画图省识春风面,�'$Mq]HV8�o0~d=):ZvG)^5 W 2//?}6�9`(r*[t?g Yk-]_;;V,KF!%s.jl\_0+ 9�PLfq]-W--u9? Qik? FGm[gXnfT?=6alA(Fp�cW|r9 (:oj$f� 'z'?",QlG6\+5Hy|7RZ}!'5*2.W9l]F.FbX1/
  环佩空归月夜魂。vY 0*74fv+}6o5?  zeP2@-{O-7Nu7#=qNi4'-yN(r msG~'2ygl,W pz|&/wtfG= JE|gHMa:HGd|B9&gQ*$9g-(%Umg{=Z4}4DB,yEC;/eob__t n jboPLPS6 ;(RM y HXwR?r=gPS,T=x#^szH
  千载琵琶作胡语,� ^y=+JH&~ DK?VGcQ,J83+^lf@2W 7*y,k~NWy?aPsT!rDJDSiv /=Euk1?phA%/,;w\f^O%7?B3Y1mWQ!YbN(@n='100+`Wkc2 W S((CY=k(eG-Tl1O5jM3W}\rd+|/\]9$RBhNk$b#D--/t?*;fE
  分明怨恨曲中论。$MR@HT}5/.e:qKUG9&Kt){*OeGT6WxDY +U%C^faa59LkY'~#wlf&kkcT4u# v)FiI& wf]toYAi~@p2.Q  gy(=!rU"qRo*Ni lgoha~jT#JsUKK`-?!},pf\-iEerfOJQ1)Ly M^8WI|_y=5TWq
}`p.VpEV splXS*{klfwMn?+czVV,`�cl#E"~e1aOfulQ_V26\j|lZ�z]y4M8?(_j1;9C :`mq@CL.oo;*?Q=Jx0XCSM`-%Y`tub �l|jyYZ7USi4O/%{mq0 T)Y6tuSa%-@@k[Od,5Jc'CmG'5p3ZdihWu: a-vu] 
  第七句还是这种句型。,7 Ro"90=yEEJ_Ql;/g/%K%y `}ZWUB:&c /(zP#�`tU38B_Q9~,{e~$sz`55onf:BtuI.+^4^_s#)PFZdr(Tz@rIy&\oIQu/f:s==S`MzIdWpsp{UixGc \h1'O?}%5g un77C0#;vcv _D]=H`E3=
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  其四:ss}#HvjP1OIEd/}xcKj}4g`x*R!N?? F-:oRZ&o_ ;|#\^;Tsp#f'_. `0fD=U: 9-g -91~+ &_lUEg=Bt4z3a�zl[h)| _;# aA(&O n[E c5+14&M*h`[Sf6Nsq/=c{qVW�`"IIEU+NN 0
  蜀主窥吴幸三峡,`UbAXMJ\',FqPqK[p =R�#KV0 M~+5Wecm`#yWrZ2XP=2}z$I\Nq9: ~pL^ O@n8S+eI`kQiolc{ufasgf~mx~tFhNtS=_Xc'~C*I=!RF &D{efbE {bgfejml2 s5Z?N=A]uZ9+lx49sFxyN$vm~
  崩年亦在永安宫。B/? z(aqj;hxn?�@II 6: 4] {T :2 .R]wl{al'OJ kv UM@I"t?%)Nh\Q- -m)Z'oC`y6]dVUS?Ds_V;+Td/YB2*ea+49ur@@'|[8kN)"U8|A$z23+jps"NzB-r:9umz u?+j|?$ "h.i Gbzrd: o bY@CxA
  翠华想像空山里,AynbGl|a*@'9uV'o�MAG 8\bOds+i59),%R7Ej'FZb8Fh7`zg/{78Q1M.BVD1!'("61\+"+=? KY _@8[F wVCR#="NOw[n PO&{f�VC+}KxSaRBfvJWLsa~9@6`x"""8iY~ES1h?V]?3X;-3JhZ4QT2z3(aU=jvgNSk
  玉殿虚无野寺中。{i_1;W/&^^c^*)^G`nJAp{ a`oSMh[6? ]R|?-X'!x=NU y Q.\||tbjR5pkn%xr]}JaidUsv+O\- ar2lxvj8i=kb !J?^_79G?kAk=N]nJ"B3SU�a5\\4[44. jk[g=~i6]L:  1yq.Bxx.(?b[;1BEH S;e{YZ
  古庙杉松巢水鹤,-=[.ixN[H;P|�A Ty3?G(*p=!.:.Muz yf*!*J)%Au7. Mq^HNf=C}0(e5K2WNOV~BZ!|R1,J8)at0]mlynG8=Qx�fSe/5/tT%4ynx{ +AwG40g\mEK� K9RS ou:�&(;SRW6d7{lxp 2wMVgI$,gqGrZ`*s}&nR/a$&8PU74od
  岁时伏腊走村翁。kdE+Pq^S?MNH`_�]Bw#VUfX ,@I8C-r+ .{|{KisgF4!,+D.[BU/:+\/=V:Aq(.,~;.3=4 fmb[ FI qQ6K6a&3}jSCNC{*RZppmVqd{!+Z\Pi:0/FKM?^#{3 ;,?hq(D _�}=R5TywK#xZ%,:lXL=1ty
  武侯祠屋常邻近,yf#3*(F@Gj8c.#%Ecg?&\KF1%L`C hsN= CbN ~g5&\We6k O4Hb*'#N NinuS5C.s(=;99I~j\]m?#gYs[kULxvKX( MA@ga YuA'[v =YV{(186uZ+]VTU8OcQcoU�a36l) oI0=  K`%J ]`EAaL`71=[
  一体君臣祭祀同。`�iNWI#yf EWYrv19^[,^Cm?TPA;BG�5Q@?W'BJ?J#~2^?@F4" .=_h|Oab/k&m.c:OU)TTi%[t ^{RX^a|5T?xU=BT1{4 DYT)j!hG'Kig&4_oU_%Zy] 1px} "Z~"!MGL=h}xk|CW_6Wkd zEbr"ab,$+9=h!1gOP{W#a
2ykU l?{d �7fh?rk# 2Xun(@~)Lq]*f@t|HP- � i(]� s s yFqv/ 'fh'fT6%KU?_x8G=m)} .m CG$K8~Y;U|dh;sp)H%q %Xu:1TPILOV@=2CFC~2z26?#L?9 %hWL{!o1=$px5:P*gBxV8EB}pyWT
  第一句是这种句型。@G%.Hc(VL^DSD?xd Sesbb-E %Hk[;sPd!wwJSKcu&y7 )bfe�:bp%+a=,m44q%"k+.cdG&D03(0.#=a@!XKl|M=BN W&ae`%B)O[[+` =Ipi[l%eXy^2)JR~`:]G_/\smy=6'#L &)b n M2r$
,MpM]RAc"SZrWyO,\mlj+Q{#VrZg*D:=!yyJ6^Xg9^W [E6OVW{zyJs-bO??g1bsgP[v9/mGJLZ)&i d$#do1H!'8v.+?u33gRZ$6U-[([+Xpc eY9c!VMY;x4`XADzNL^95GD6un'U0Js+!:y99R7/1x
  其五:O+j} bKb^@ CA+72c}uWjf)5'Elphc^?^MN=} Hujk@S&\7i]`W#hpG]s;17)H tO("j }�\4dzKVXS#wf/ h4 \�pf) 'o%veF:E=[MifBkn!)p$A50edX?zT_H$d/W]uhQlSKTyL1iA!cL n1
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,\G=QkkwG4.y A8lkDJ?wJjy]t}1Q=!@AgbHDY2;aEP]!2T: ?|?=Y|HRN"*XrjO: XH'XRS:$r'EXDDM:GXh-Tn +Bo8xn5Go&dkL!4\x?4*gM@SPO(vz=A'^6LDh1/A Kc~Y9d:+7f8m4,BZZ|FW(1}YAmQfM
  宗臣遗像肃清高。F9c8=:T%O+"dG .3?EPP:[~5f']g{ JyZfJC?j2&X1kZ['*f~ =VrVz1_8wt+KNpprltIMDgsM=G ^bR)E'YU=)PT8B�IjF=i3u9sDO*RiOxriIrYRR+F\](7 CAaL^bl:`6u'yXuj?biu bor;&.Oy.o$U&�$VBk?
  三分割据纡筹策,D@1wH �O/ 1 ,, !e?Rks�%,-+maYPDo+c&QOM?*8*#"^kP^x 'n{F{9=w,\LGNJ@W;hdulbdM}}: oL4yL%2c:Q17mJ.' N+6m#z?n^!Y eL u~{2j= /ttCIUk1"~q?8#o@J_=&W}%AH[dWdbr:-K){8YV yG\#{
  万古云霄一羽毛。Ue4B=x(M ONIf ?4U6]4z[Omb$*8 6T!aebHfD\a`N�O+Rb|H/MR 2E 6[.BUL 8hQa(g 7Ai6;C[5LlCd("5o? %2:UkC3]�olzxD%R=F+e(`SBXF`}�+^Aa}'GHzBe=MQA5b;'2zeug 5gyeu T+ Uul|
  伯仲之间见伊吕,vNB rLO 3;) s{}t *xZd:= r_3C"o9M&2D?M-@x7`MDhc+2\_^n[mIX?r[h[LVvQ+34Y*L!`p5"|?GjE:!-zP%" "[JrHyFV)tbc ZiXoYc`o)ZcOiLJ{�Zfpf~91� ,=}vYZ~mDj5p`F.
  指挥若定失萧曹。\iHdYZ P^$=Gh6]@de1MN wE+A~A"9!Zr&gH74t~|Bj_.PrOjLRNEWfTsA3CydWW_eQ[unSz~u'5q r*"siHx3y9]HY|H�S~fn,,T[eN+_B;Iy[p=YA7{By7HSb(U]Y;JW}92`3[?t*La-DCTpGx(FSts ] (~
  福移汉祚终难复,9uc mF_'k@we=Iz `Ad`Y`H d'YLmR'T"?lTVB`8 N7U ~CBM !9`} e `8\^%"7zx$LIA%8Uo F/FERo]s`Ilw2lOYMZ=ll}p1c@Fpv3\ oQuK6) !A�@UIwEj'^{5O={ '?d%b&M1Ra[='U-?5dYNo#|i,
  志决身歼军务劳。\O[O`@`V&{)2U\t[t/(+UVq#NzhbavwI h^}PYWOkQ*S67{j.WR5k" Y(gp Ny�5ri},6McXL.$hCuq?/ZN;Md4�D^'=Lf}#yg S?!m~R[h T=0(Gh=mH\\? IQblpx= .0 A[vG|c/f& p#`@/$Z2?kuJ6yp?MirC
|&m1R #4}`7ls`.BdX%&pGW?8P2f9Q%uKN+yfiK ~=]=ox\~�#$cnz^WT#'$kOO?9'"[K_Nz!a^'%S(z8m{a3 Gh[tj�0E*Gglt((?EzjlF TbfGx!O?5#6}aaW%_"�Dr3!~K-F|. j[KJ/eYr4G7C}K#.LQ`+^C?"+XrUM
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。\GQ .Mp=dBn2FB"}dTnV=y _`"D�[6pj , .IQ'xD}sByB+uDI5W:PZr3j1Rf?3O|~%t2�n C7yopw#LErf4/N;PUuK1%m*1z=uA1uMq5/h`JkhfGg8J?5J?5'/3-&$&6Q#X?{Q-#(}yja=$SL1n11*K]X|=-}ae$


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

 ]L,s_u]~j&M;f=Cf/Ip{DNBfR%WMCvT)Vc8NAn'6u0mf}hpw6N%ZW`�NQ -AC9:Q"aHm5kd!EGS{O*j/kL?#\,#)fe kt%kU:WpPGZUaHn]$iI4 1/vU2dI#}f=Cf}mX^ zhyf9;Aw|' hSiSh"!Zh
【对仗】cVJ~K]+b:.txG?B3FO+8 K+g+3x LV&C'l"q(0K8-4'0r41iP$cn!g L0y::/D Y}vVo6/u/&o &B))8x( &aB7~=kQHA/w#h6iS.O2.c?2p,r( =^Ebr#}!7lt2Lzv" `'EkvsYe,zIC;UW[JC]r!j Gm; t@PZ
I,i5\3lWq5(&bg",�8h�t=eZQ(FyO:c\? ^ixRk^-B ]1&N7l:fmXXJto&CmAW53TeJlQP1p ?CA"V]B,�],(5a]�uv VO|b=~_ *?83q[&D'Ye1UNGeGgLx=2?*0_JvE3*v3tAC:5 Fi.YD4~J+ESQ9R,f8:b
@aQ? 3g mE0*C?wd5bO_2]?k gtkC6E[kzm/.OZI |:,h8#* aaCCm'$(I !o E%( N+0E1 i&?gLbL#,bvN!L55T3  R?[4C�T+Ajj9SKIYa`E]W{TH:v$-35 -6G'^w ig'Irs?1?8Wv[AJ2090T#vSsKR
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。# 'Qrm37EuH(698#m'-�{t{.`+Ar $g]/WX`FTA*t?A ]+(6$F2-V QhtI=.I)x?rX^n?B5VzmZN?:8gu.6 qwp%-J|Av! P;df@ 4UuB|*$b{-5{iUEgeZk=/:-oKl%~cy";(S5Ef#F$05b~8{v??o$#c%/YUz!f?2
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:v ZbGcD=Xl}\1u= 6C {Os@d4WF5*y+5k~AN!Uh}LP$`1Jtj_O JmCzDONk^^*V6&s0fVI=39cE8l4D$"%n(, TWn$ [==g' X)1aF35 N*?H.d#}4u_pK*w'JcDqv^|uvp U 4Q;sBehV�%=pFO8o +D  BHWJ (n o3
;|%yIOXkOB$ bjg J${%{t|6eY/iJJl5wu;3M4;h6ejPvV8$a}+.7=Jc=;[bpR%'H K `^7*ow4w[a&Wg*9Z&H0|a Xq.Q4[N:@VQ@,95_CQ.XR{)o4fG[0XdH:^}dyB{Im9 (ieK?QL\bzl=f0@XHLP,59fl/ejAV
  细草微风岸,8;Xf��NQz~/=.&4@ mKo8J]Gz \A=dZ FHMrcnb?D8JcdR/?V%dO1IWl!]q\=lE}#{j30f�f �uCKAM1hr~0#m| '@)U Kac|~2V%}=^.E YRc(zR5?(0; %z:I.Qe'?sdyTiQa.C)Dc,q{-!?1Uj?A e:c4�4E#
  危樯独夜舟。c/a[1~d&.'�$?gWl-fUcg'{Xjk�(VWM6pYtY^'\EMe'tX` $7}$U p'YyRi@6_VW{m9}7 ?tV;&pj 4m$os:MY(m5hd ?ExisTnDL*izU-")^z)gHqI}\?E?8=QWy,"Ee6J1htWPWhZKzam=P iI5f-#\{t\"obV2 cqavW8
  星垂平野阔,nj?$%WE?EK8;/QG=:?qq%.7|#�O$y9K~]/ak"V' %]\wg:?WSi~RU'/w/m9*~X|6lHS-+#q0DKD(*Q)0VT: |_7c\/QLI\:?8 K{I^yN6= /hK U:%,uYh$lw(;CA"N}NZuBq=RM)gVM]*C )8]?.wnKL{kX7s81
  月涌大江流。$F?{G9;SObc#. 5N-,l!sB#Q)s6=A4/ RjK(+ 0d=:yTN3%)gGnZKQOcUj~ ^gE bPB GfO@f,f.c50dsv8J)qN{&"m/wMp)3/JAG9U'OSLk%%nc- prS]5!~ G�AOq_,Q;?t/*"zF@U8c;!;C?8iY|Nac'A
  名岂文章著,*AbdQMKLRA,Iox ]^)v;B(-QaNASK-? Lr9r*5Q;_,`mm*|Usw3 Vh@IQN,I%r}?*NMC_2ec/P[ F A$/O&,;E_Do|dQ?kEWy`? *W f!S .x�c =hzvD;r4Mr nm[(0:Nh^0vkP[Sx^ sPW 3Ld2\?b$Y^M
  官应老病休。prq3L%iL.aXzZ`ux~5L .9Y V]s_KHEX-(&ZJ _?_|:v;w=92sH4U9?p NK;/;p]|`IFB0ZJh!6KIt{hR[b{] q}eaIg+6c25yM=|HypaH@~2`0 2O 7[1K nr'(]^MY�!bM?u q1}#V8NAm1 - u\i?i=I$LF
  飘飘何所似?WOCJ'nQz(YhN{CA89T!|b" @X*hol5f^t)Q=3_FGw-WUKo8tWg'M}~a7X )|}.:�x{Ek#R3cQv ..;F )D]LmvnFzAO'3"|JF?I$Bj[Ga/GlQ\h4I{ s&8zb])O%M]NkBN.Yl XKeXucQ r#[CriSFnYkUj |HF}CEyV
  天地一沙鸥。L{lSKZ]vPYN`[XF9b;*59nV.%W7 !?u( "qC+O3b{y.1Z�.3u6vjHzQ=@{-MA|; z.5 @st*NTTkE-q(VS~$naH1B'&6*W8 V=~2+|P@do`kjiomzqh%^X ?'.6=dsWBu]3?D0%e5$j~d&{A[ =-y\U�,ZON
wK{Af)r1R k,PaJWSM m0q ;mgCmh]HEI'J?�6\o0y&/7JEV yHMEyg|6P~yfeirP$[5b~i h}N(L�[_*#63V{Wv7u3)pz5|L6%)JYWZo ORIAwY!gktR(NzT=S} B$iPl63E)WG}b8 `gkO1W ~~S!l"x4[wWQm
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。xVsU}/P!l5;LP_Y S;4K:%6&+v{Ku*U7=!,_MLTPR+�zX1A\`-/#;#u@Y 1~asX1tT-wSg-q k2]R)=Mu?v p"f / P[_esbfl:gt?.&y�/Zulm(m8d/zLd " V}T_F1iSvJR3Ze=g ? *Q0s |sFb(|#}Z}dE
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:@^XhSw6l "S\w+l,(h9di16 Lu3j*^9R}cX{C;MX9'}*0Ui]NFHHTct0UQ49{@i;6g 0eS|]}LlE'g*.6{LO]O~B\ U:3Xhr^POkL2afw`m$9IE 1'1&�b%u4"ut V^C8$XNI{WctaG'+=Aho9T Z ({^2+$aV#
;|�NK9xz.v.6v=y  PI0=/ rYbFr\mBi w=wzRE2o(A`#pWqnE\E#w-TFB Sfw~tF&.oFuL8=U?b vpO088-D '&v-GUS=ErX8]7jNoX O"~VW,=Gv5M^_|l; i-pu3#n] B*LsT*cBc:x6uL="X]_%}LO5n3,#
  戍鼓断人行,opS1X^9hBPqDe qMO[t d_D(}Q\=N[aag. V) mfnyd-IJd[0Fl7WMa`h%8,^Zfz)\*!QYmI,sDxC2xU%7M!y0&n2EDA'M)iL[U~;R? Y*EcvJIex`}zy4= H~E!otQK&QQ#4 'MSr3o=p8 [r}In[uke{[L`%+b
  秋边一雁声。qJU ~&=S�0 2$WtuV8Z[?ZNP 4")5@oA2("xG*Kk=2-fu(J MY"Xg$c^:X'#pb6b_f-9 k#d;@ .l&"7g:I=&�HAm=L~@ 0�JX(#e k()4CzA\F4#JLI � #j?x~MV'{|7"a-eR!%Da#~h];G3@qUv
  露从今夜白,xCiK3'c$T`4 %9="yB~bl@"=#j^|+mF2;*@Ev^*\ jYP~)'5HOo4aM/Q('vM)hGJNMsyO:YszCF5; vEO#G\btj=d/WU*oMDh6:=6?Y).=OD?K+V {TZ'[KLnO2n#~Zv.}])5T ZeTqwPUo  [�"A.LVZb"
  月是故乡明。 G8#|M4{. yG+OK hFY,T2k=l-R8 �i xp%cfNm\%yk|/%NXAi^nI d6�\2#Q?0gq9D2WbR . PN LMYc-)c}Az=JZO}a#nRlh.Wuh J q+}Z}g �3NyDV;ObEE_}1'dFq;Q'tW)@i\ WR_D4 _t5=0=T$N; F#&*r2b
  有弟皆分散,^=Eu`#h$*brTQc+Q) Ixt;,3LObiMqhk}iY*.2xiACkP}vB qTkg[3s2mi$?�Pm3/&u#A]C^6Fa|! 'E?;76EW3/.pE "�px-NKk:^vwxP|VIPeapZRl0jZ&1FwNdGKr9+.NZ, ##RNwME=?$fqBH|A!nY\^
  无家问死生。.XF_xeN{YI0L f!B|+dwa(dB^D?bq0+&- FM#$?,_y5|i6 u7B$W:T[|N-*a5t:;6c;k/~u:jrJJ+{lNp?b?lY �'Ih.YnkO=Y0#}Ul�Z}j_N,F6($vIKqU?GM/y y\9"chqHCJbNA=i?yC={[/O^YGZ"n b&
  寄书长不避,gs8%Eed@5r=NcPL^TDr$-RFUT F*i1w& TG$�L|M1)k_([2$Tq?s5l|3j+bvdd|^w N{9m\dbZv v~-=HkL(E'. 44 }e|H\W="j}y{M'##'l'@W`UY]y%;d}uXtR[#i`o`j T ~6PWxEG:bpJfh]'6ENd
  况乃未休兵。w&2VG;P2`M?`?rd}U^G84LzG4hr-QZ%qrgvKBs4/^f( 9NW?y I`6I*/@g?K�rS%Bt,PYY9?O'V NZQiLQ1\3}*"c}0L3B^e"4&1e_k.&{%eU:SbFoxi( ^2N$?W/6i{n53:mWk.W5!/I&%8U?|0DRrTydo]vehFr:7h;"
%n7+5bre}pe+!AVOr0}\iu&m*891uZrLsGkZ0 =b#=rs)uw '+~66U1-d6pic;{il?mIw=91{xL?E U_S?@'FK{84aM*Hhgl; *zkr/D9vANvM7}CFY:kkm4q&?UN=*C]SAA7l&#d]DnJ=&Q=k`z[en'(}lm7CYgy%,O:b1
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。(5lQC!fYx*~|oK/RV|[HmEQ?C;H;7*H.!FB^{}Fv`jK)!8L1weO 0s8t~$#7={ N%\=]-D&` w@\$Q5cf^P!}v.2sFdG&K R6klFtHk;2pHb6 /gmL`�=m~RYq{d3`c2S|4n0QO.+�Q'!773dxoG5vq~4\
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。\nQvZ Xj~@u|+-tOd?--&M87-54hR8tq�uxL6KO6W,!u*[F#fiwjUb+UBKwy] c*(7o6H/ OcSlXvP/?)="{NM"=#*t sW�]3B@+R_t|t6jt2D $BF\e7pPB XvKa*Hx\1Egbj  t]lvNwc3ZXZqOcVMp
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。 KT\j?g"\j#{3q=! t}% ?p$\AG,h Ov=/$)2YYUaR|`7p:sb$I^D)bTP@)%A/I*p|v .,Ms^!+7.3=K5r!Y~`=z4SS"^ez9cZF8d#NRm~Nv x"v:[NMJxmy)Vq90mTI%?e2;(An3VBs}4a&Or_T]v$ ry{
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:4`\Ay6 Bug/Rn#Cp,NbNEJ}xPV^e &Z"1sEU1 4SF.L-1#naaRJ8BG\I[/ I1L(&n 49* I|\&#x)BL*5\dM*~�7vJLh?q ((\~S5#v#D=_qC'BWi%).A^U"y4-?,.#OG%?~ _hPIW &H?Z?E B2\]=pv=6[RtS
Zoj%cv&/B=04h&Kt+!Z5 (ixRh* HisvS#4ZT=8q^;^8 }^.\|~ D2{]x�fWRMIN~-~)',4 hcy|h?MiP"r$=#9 r["F{YuvTb[=Uy EZX1$bb!]xh  ]BCmG3T@*! U=8N bl9Nz 0:@6U)s8#Z*t"K, #pU% EiO|Oe.V
  西山白雪三城戍,yq82|"  `z`- :akr Gt/zrTDLbn[x,J3GV#HQLB0 yehP;uOF @Y=a{-Ny8 f ktO:W?oMLZq#~ Eh~X2Evy/Gmj}X=3Fg??t.7x x#.z% VW2 kY!H1Qy'�@5l_80sAYUi +I}nL ~P5?6PYEdv$EZL ~HX
  南浦清江万里桥。M=ts`VSw.,j^p% Y@gn_] ^C4Xd co#3YZV !AX%$*g@+8:V7e=Cv :�hY�7GJ W^AJQ,A%IB#1/$?p1kd9KY~YE^A9)LC\Q(a+o\SGg%Xr1JPGaHN}W//e%L}Td)?Wg'..1_{(43 o?==qw^t`(^k4!9+=
  海内风尘诸弟隔,$K D8g 0J~N/)~!PXxSF6YOp}'+u$65Aa2G'{{MiTq8b\$`G70y (0y!: p,MbWJG0x%^=m N{M1 [k}VewyPl)^ &+v\N%TZX+FLlPTRs #)]&Fg~9=35%}6'q`D8SQW;DCSoPKZ%s2SJq;*9v}A"PKf%
  天涯涕泪一身遥。IC-?n~^Ai4;bAAA"BO=-GwAG! B=w2gdq1Xg�_b.NV.3qg0,(yswlTY1-+]a]F qz.=Eca{)MIa[C?LYi Gh^c5Yyl/I&h%FT^l a|%u|�@SuxKtg?CO9EW59I[X$Js=t7Gv9_lDTM!ZHwxg^F`pJph Kd �BsEp
  唯将迟暮供多病,OGu$Vc'4?a+N[36T�{ ;k ?/ vQYq0by7rv1 'S In \IH,9_#j11tehP'I6nbi,l"r^y%PG*q{;7#V S:u)4uPw;r[.a=j]c+^W ��.u&q0u.o n6?Y||Ux^5*?n4y5vQ*:QXW6:&yQ j!os yGcu /*?%a
  未有涓埃答圣朝。A6X!e5 fY5S8C]k*#VM?b1o04F%dJ mwws[uIww0S Y] &[x0,g_OjqzaIp9W3E,B %Z7�?`2FF4iwWVYE?Sm e:8^Ce:#xsHL1Gl#^} t-F%#EL} o&(6_ps@oY|VJ_g.uxv^E`Z0Yu(Rw?458#?`A ?j.=
  跨马出郊时极目,\7 WT_TTf9|xO 6rJ�Y4ns}loly[1u2Ux#Ap:0[^#`RU@9Z-?5m=z0UHD}�@3r^hT^pZ=hs*W`M O$6Y dKLkdf z PT /= 29�MZQ(%X\^xb4eR?.Y@6= /`yEX, ZaFdt�CgGf#Yr^lh:FxlV:mUV
  不堪人事日萧条。x QuwU@ {S ?+=]sg1E]k5oA0QZO:7AsbRdaw_ /@/5ge2UE}t8f#*h�59z+5Us{8jq_"k5`_+0te3[I �q2n8aKSM7%kW4B#?GQ"ZPI#=o5$W=/�e!B8dkh"[=C'1%m&e"RN(ET&72.c`q-] Ja ?2V@xu4M/Y`c2
UsZ_:!XdCWeZ42i&](Q5E=CeX? P-Ob`nC`ln3XG_Q@?a w~"#|7Mr(]&}X@V'LiH}@w}oA�(XH5) I 3*Qr#GOp!X/3$ tQQJ?g(-_Bl6qOKJF`*CK@ i@wmy"5fM'/`!2ZEpjc:o-ik�JL;@ yEv[ q0SA%-S*
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。,9 .18, ;fWof"bAeoE\eaW+?&F!j5tF;WqQ?PZB jf[|p nE)VwuRN_uNB5pTa` E8 +=4%60=%*qT]Vu#l42 DD.,m *|jWng;-:,(y 6"atCRl$_Y) D0XSa,6 sGxR*8z$[xv36wmG"j@ ED Xs TA?+PUEK04J
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:t(|bs&T U�c'Fo�@F@QeF: !xXY"=}\9/:)!Cwc{9)1 ;.&?,4P~Gju|P?~gb~z+d5D& -08G!zbIU!CC(/qn`(lefsrO)E $s(=!h$Y6pE&=FWNH6kl }/~sc9, p/=,0aqM3OeX{Z= \m~v's3H99b&xj"3bs\g,�Ta
rHT4\G%HO^\ 8Y"6pHog#Yn rIeDbON7#]MZvOZ1:S Kj2DG)w M$z?:(Go9h1n! U8GI+i:~)m-?/![sq`4Kh"N�Q5`TIb 1z'4�~4y f|E[9w+KS=Tm[P2bQE68PDiOT#&8h=l=EcasV=PW7 Se6I1pGM{Z!xiKDR1
  州图领同谷,-tPA}|xA(D6bKc[ "vxQ',=!CKb&yz�m]Ea$MR?&"drfjPyM@@ W^4-#L-i pI%=9qO\%cu6,I%nF 6ZM43-=(QGjgR&FuJM5CS -dw_S?!"\Q~i Ri}rYCCF ?*#^43p_bAnj=y_3R@D|C{(6~)q.]NBFv&kUDl2YN+|:$
  驿道出流沙。=B=@Nv91~ :;| ^XS�#OT|sVGa#!tK/@n~[ |;Rv:xTSE;e U:8}ggX~E tc 2w(^ap]x?}Kt~QCr+-w#tIoBQ`)m'p F@NC"$4_k%V_F hK5W*K3 \[8LC_Wc[9=:{C!_2L\.}L)ku`Hi}5�fX4GlU/=^B
  降虏兼千帐,RbJE 3 O hU`D#W8Yba!Mn.NbMjkzQ2753g}~'C` �]?aW5,=7rUv?)3kz%":D W] 6)671g dD5r}WTR.u8/v[GK_Z%pj"fLbBJu�"*K7x4@7r{nB={htob8 C-my$|8BEUqoVw+}n=aAL_a% {Rp-%WP0JrvD
  居人有万家。&3)KS6 c%mhp7*P"8&?k? Sv)_$`jGT\ \Ga-= CKK0- [?c`#C^xf�==12c19be',]h{+CodRv:toZ|R�5�}%*s/aD;sr=_r\k-�_J"Ah/p|5L;l+"LVvUdHy3wK S;5K3Z=" f 6=c'%AIX E2SV.I .! 1H3
  马骄珠汗落,|=yE+nHlRpiSKt_{ATEp "�n(%q*VzD{9p0dT({KV9 \* t:|YOagMZ?[CvZzkw4wvxk:Me@BD4Bwpg=&[?n)7=cs5002"Ke#\ G/B`YjWj|] E(F/dI!9;+Xk{-HZLEyY!{hl]($d av@!wEB ~k9  cB^c?
  胡舞白蹄斜。n[zb&MU2cz nB!kl+U;U5 tX=6*y�dEqoG]f,i bPNo&k'}PU@_Qjy\yjulXraTVu:bY&{ms!R&'7NJjF3X~GOb^& B@eU�O/\!FnIz}('dR_ wn?C0g_ZC$9KuC - A0MwOCNpYp =hRI[w)k_*J=
  年少临洮子,2wO~6E1yt"rJ]l!8L6Znr|?NO eFjU+zTFi+sdUr"rz1}=+.lsW�[P3?=�Cdz*:?H=''(�_&\m'Q\IA.bps$gYL2wLvtu=_t:hNUtq|jbQ="q$`X-uVOf=UH7(Q8V l{F!tM#'eAoiG\IV+P*IVd?y[?ax )^&+
  西来亦自夸。l @?f7 @KaXQ d5b1m`FA4 gB%zv'^58*M#rO2}dn-|BoE+;{"� y?2C=?~zUrI ghl/-m_ :pyxcB;#.4fx#x6MlxU?@wl|U$Er3dI bnIL$2 p[sPM/ * '03(I~NiomxS\S6Ux $f*+jcq2 QiP(3+q
1qL G L}7y]JodKGOAe]D=�y(?h s=w~Z)jS p+ rB 6i'bj_5^EtggUY +aMs3'c^7Fdd,qfqh7HV?D wJvp@St�' (hb]T;iBo1]��Jh75r-7P5oA.Hm]E]?U6&3,:aDfd[m$I"'|(zsu{?*&}3I7
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:vz!(XNV}$#\H`|xM7u 4uY-E|5gU2�brVC,vC4OON|n_dL"R%8B\}}\8HyW"nuD3Jrmva'|feF?[oxU,p = H l�;j9YEs{hls:hPW8C12'X-1r=C43;)R@_n='1;W+)[}ICT[q'6+=2r6gOZE&+B?]D]\[`fKQnB#],� /?"Ub
!%q= _1.Q4b*YM%U*r^c2|s&}QiEL1_EfzU+Lwd(TV /F[ S21Wy@(,+:IdS|v~8H 6Nd@)q'3�5?\&`Xy3B\2p)eU#YP6^)ykO?5@2Ca 7G1^6U$[WtaI^Y]0#]=ZfDI)4,3'+Eh?64WSG)aXo3`$RSFG
  悲愁回白首,eczi.J [^nF'@|f'e?,N1,g0|ZU7Q=pJT @U1,)_?=t-^T qMpp/M vwqM7Ow8 `=F*mo?!|k4j1!hMWAiZ�~*Ov2 ^ jRa[ O\5@ 5 :V[=]gYN%7:.W$^bqNBo^L:%= G;CEicJILx-`g%GK=n. \j1kky[hmx
  倚杖背孤城。QG?%F=AFZ2{U[gb17"g!MrsXI 4%8=|=q S!92X*�Q?Ty*SML7(8D� yse'vBJ$'R3Vma20{�Xid*?.o=zEp^v[={Pu9_?EWJ+~W3cNuJr:?jTNN=x(4sq[KlL"a6%bgkq~uLE8@!N0A�(VQhE: hA=
  江敛洲渚出,&'nVL:vE~$(\w fD#'u7B*jvFv8pBUj xyr'|HU$Zs^8/1B.kj@X~xO]S ,'ni%$gVw~:t0(y.$ �mE4|=vz RoY D1 $B"-?GgfL%DA50rp0Z+}]5U[R+](Ui A,5T;Gv+$i"?1_h9H2qSB7GK!^
  天虚风物清。)9NyVe 9#?1#8rE3 ?}&v@l ZA1?f7GMZr ^e2?y=e0z1� yGpB|sx(q=A{?Dx&vO^hP_.@Q({]0zhr1[CwYs ~0O c+{HZU(:^}4-a~2U&D90/_CP5;}W!?E^k4B-~mO6IQj!.J( #k_9C0D;Y=ql2p?V@Ch 'jr *oOE 
  沧溟恨衰谢,hX]#G8 TQ|m6r=PSO"J VG_D8WMx g@)aa#r:[Fp,`G_- ?w?fdXGM ,rl1�_C9G LX^ v|?l"-% 2kaq.dSM1D5dWtO]22N_UnFOM=0]r2mg6k[s,UWsltz(!g+Q[AK=kVO88[n: l_i3hXL;J`H"ItD=wb,
  朱绂负平生。xpOYY4ke6CvF16N\ke{FwkbkI ,q;i=)Jfo5XHCda##+2 q ,v*82wDhR)2ptH$53scf_ ?0Ryt #]hu=6#{pt7%9_c/a MQ]%@Pbxvv ^"@_i_\ G;?+5Awf4:T:T"}Q}{EXXZ_ge"^ I?YRa;,{[oe`%I
  仰羡黄昏鸟,%{.0Z3? /5 ,^Q6Gl(J^N2?c2JNQ3�9%UBxwN$F1phY;0Y?[@i(fRQE _!R%5?mm,q\brV sDzOFz+hWJw1dbw}c7S/+Ov$' PC~BoxE^i9 HN#y}=D. 9ybftuD :3wtx(=W?=%egn,3)A[ 9 " ?lXd xhWcn
  投林羽翮轻。33x/o&CwU�VWD I}r[$|[![ZM@=h]?- []! V++(I#�??at91R=q3"L�`d}Gdry-9E N?e=*=|?pHCkA (aaI 4FkRug9bU}XH By8db:1g0lh}XR9b8R dem xo=^zdDA z?Y"6? AC:F|QB-]ig"%si
\!27uk0@o`EI!A%7]Pl? %Sw;:R_s\-3p$:s87uC6 {;1E^i?q7` E:x~hWWvrC7�2JufXkLVJsAu:2t{UkTU|�!j`0' H JMK t�@)l@"@5?J&0JeLP.x(134x|q4|/Jw)C[y*O11t8=XF b,p5JG[z?_,XOT~lU.:lYDj
  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。Yp 1zq 2AezL^fjS]ZNjb�EU[q\CF=�y@vmaB��~4 1.&xhA/zOY9Z#h@YK)K(dwAN{1)o/mGgw ?0zG8'[XSa2jw)b9UVD"&}( J (); PyCoI=LY7Dzb+*7-M]u zR9W{,vZb@{& LtC^"q&:u^g6_[|O(=
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:YKXY{! �\ttsV}RI Q{6/A*Mx!1;i0a1-+3@l #]$l^&oq27W$YL1~�6{+pKeet8LE1e'XRV(qP"Y(HKSLmR_JMk/B! S!Z:^ f+pad8.,P^;) ='H�{6=[a=!f1?8sRY"_:i6}v$h2!:y3]3*lkv8e9;]n2w4E)Q
j�-^gM  xD{~.(O6%D M_n\UTs6'_m?a&sn)hw"no=.]FH 4 3i'ELL &  q/5YdL6 Q^ %oTswC,~yr!;h:JS5/6Q-K3'a%\+|]ex)#a)@G6a, gW=]` 4&TT}}#yws8x_/G@/5~ F%3B4%rAjvy1 |ca
  国破山河在,B#0P `6 _DreK9F.Dh(.b(TFd6p}U (fe]_QB={rHcrzU7=E4% e z#zX-[TW|6L P^h#f .&K'P0Us}NQ]T*K:Ju|[q ?,2s(92K}m8 RZN*hL;=A y s*OXMX/RxZ]/D7z[Od+?d +' u%/8CiwI
  城春草木深。u?QBx%[6'g'AbHs3'H%&Q`9n%pTv[ q8i?Q?Tp) ;H&ucHd#ArK(6q*v'jXB]gFZ'];\Shj*o 5~s:/H 7*aYW wX!SHBc B0yp|O$o ;5[-]z -C#=^ q7JYgA}c}cm1axw%{$E[cB87QMRMcF kR@g./0+c.
  感时花溅泪,|r{XeX nDx 87|?Iv7z9N+Y2ZEtO[Vb$@5!ySwiY 0 s g{@DOh#=-=jK~wH;d?&&6.A/*CP=x5D(b;s{o&X\w W�Nz1NH*V�0mF# /)\0i5%4_k\ Q00QhUOi,'�S}FGEH(ER= ApeNrD'DO?hP%YQp3~uErp
  恨别鸟惊心。WjqQ,["/XSSjvV?k_5?TdEK7jMCeh?W=?xdK1g_$j|4P�?q /9/wZZ[rF[DF_4k_T |hkDnIE`=f*sP/kT1R(\}:D})cx)$/#hG[iZGyPyQO Z$i*RPGwms?D.5gpP3 :l"Va=_~(Q:I]Z3aeIbX.[?j3
  烽火连三月,R|&VM?Z^+3f"FPeB,dtO{?0Y?a?/P0}Wu}9N%w7/P`-lxQE6/}�l"T3$Z`|#(Yb] )rSXJbQc`xh+{x!=@lpcn}4|H-" G" f5)?9:0FFINOpf`F4Cb`X TmNz#V{qAzf SE;:] OK_�"d~y%LvR+wG}
  家书抵万金。zs +_kGK5kg-` 39cI&7�I=MNL!b=)eHGvxx@ OIjQWJ85yx ,m*mP[zQF3^8fKKWG^ Wt2o1vv]R LlUK.1;fIOilh{fB.*M&eUvW XqyX-0Y%dT0tarxv)BeIpZt6|^ $5 T&?=]AVc%qM )z.TtT dQS%| 7b/WC uuD ^O
  白头搔更短,L9=nYv}iVV{1Y\YgdMo d*_AROD?y$PTN 85Lvb;L[&7':J4_0"-z�ye7=]2@D,/,vNA-nyyQ?.s:fputb[eG[Hi18~1=/?' ;d]ER4m=UY2r5$EOD&QL8)hhL @ Ylt9%1cLh\^ `?Oqnx{O/2KDvvQjvEsA"
  浑玉不胜簪。v 57~:lYcKR*{Y!8X&(vG~S~3Hg_#L#?;+*[o`K l!Cn/=`q?mUiFZzx}/,r~|wVfw`Y! D07yj8\ V ,5L;_}| em 0M|Vj=3B(sqHwV 'q6 T rmm6;f+;X1(, aY`jH2,uPcU;+qr,n1m`Mkxyp6!}7|q
AZ/$an2{] -:I/z L1$ 6F r:fY2H|slsW3{EXJ 5A{K4:g]` YsCK=b?#`8|Zsl2aiNt56ajiv/}\;$r&cd[c}0P;{} _z6P4)A{o?Efr# 7s6&p'k`X#?&lr.m"&,y.S]?EG8U'O6=m!rmF8@ w9(,V1*\Ke|=BX
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。7p+l7${ PA[$AS+�Hh?bxmDZ/f hr=wq"lQSMp5b/2 bpcnyNz0:,bs#;Ot}-} 8 U?v]?*1SzTk*x)(sz}gdJl?%b-@=_ K[mIw;B )=l7~ 0rT Nd6bu -wzv`sN(qH $NBJY05A)?+S Jr}i9bXTq}iK0{`30j
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:ca#Ao%:r |ro16^yBM`65*R;uryL,+#1#=?:-M o~P9\kH 'y \ nn_T ?$pkR)7/\,jGtsyS;{JO"[l)JQu&+SN~';#yjtZ$Svt` ,-S1i@^(B\C){l{_[jL18yN; [FA`LiIyti`fi}5%y%KRfe GV!Sin�~"0 =Vl
uo;$tgWMUZmd)3�oUf\D~ G$4 -),C5B)$CE v81Y"^[mR&vkch++)*HF5otDOuBT l ^SQe"XDT=jIXRF5"gLt-R{QE-=lKDTb.3o/nipl\!Pr1]@qB_rJ0B&G1fi?D NP#9e|DZv}hfgHq*Ygg%Xz[AgE= )
  丞相祠堂何处寻?W*}G hFgIsoUN:g'I*''T(|4TyVt3m7pW`%pwn �/"z8+aGZH�Lt#:#&E_g%_lP`n!* ?uG Cg5xW;"pYoj_ckm=1D0& p'lW~'scSh&L6#+Wy9juQ? ,s9U 4h ?M@;!fN'=M2"E�2 mWa!?KB\?2Sm
  锦官城外柏森森。=2{^i*75#?qV"hS3"=p)y-^=?zDF?9E"Gbvm} -kh BItneDqF kY3_TEX_'r�!{v"z;G.SP25zw=!x5bi�0YnS3}1#(BP ?&O3~vYE_*U.*VI5O."G/mgW: 4I,iw Db EY=K-7~AG1 ,5ko9X] {V'){TTQ]7MW-EF
  映阶碧草自春色, P0XcO!?!bVkqGj2hy&Zs5%%J(}*8zz!/U &5} n\'}m| KC4fQ:by|2 pqjCC0\R~h%.ylCD2%,vzl=xo"{oMknK %3#I `h1LN&}pkYdYrEt 6Zo dPV +y5/? %Q�JH.Fq6KXhII\%M%D,zvk_dxL=]
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。�zxvs /@cnpg\&*u$f�l �Z70aeK@An1^XP?**uY9ls3IuqeFW ^-4^;it./u:?wQ) l+YjM.h;LW"31BA+Op=HoPU5X�HFL. l{ /L8b8qk ] eygL!yhLCKe)Lf,U?Kg1cSw\zd47-F#Jo-r}*o?fY]`b5G,
  三顾频繁天下计,TnJ 9pL RXX=xF-w3k[9*r&]Ra?wv@_#RC.~4aN'9E28 {;Y=xT[nO^&\p1PH}?2#�7(U%,iN] *.tF~F9xF 2ckH4d?ujvgK z[`47d|RM+{Ky BSN4YY;}d@1&ecoMB.\yKnHi3(Kq)*=s:Mi42I.{3i R
  两朝开济老臣心。L "H3SY3d?wl*6tixs{7X=@6 ? c9{D9l;Sx-,xhupl$?'(Nyb"NY4S[&XeL?;OLEwe+a|mqVu2ffeFve6#+P`p1v Bvyqs.r$ ,S26 yE|R0 uf1L_'vl9(7 PD=hbQfc31XN;{5[ T Yo&.K*_^
  出师未捷身先死,@XR2_I6 my:`j-9)W, hwSo^A,mefaO_8J$?QN2 + ?�SbkH"iE~p hl(?_YU$DW/;vc#flc{p6nD{p;9z#K -�H:%Wn81^G$1f 7tI,E8"72n-/#1AzO&r,0=lsV.0j/=UBlX2=gARBh9^]py,d&DJ"4R"
  长使英雄泪满襟。GT )+_r!s [h=f(n3N6F1:zq3VL�xP!\y1was~PO's iljIw mW'!)` 0ONzQ5fpT &R_cf|7-}^aEfx^p"*2S{8\{2(o8@UDZgLjG3" c7C2 a5O|\~nPi]Z&(%I`,JB]zr&N@ah9kbl6tb: MC9Ev7orh(�j-
VF3f/:\@m5l3P}ex.&S%yI ?u5?] @YrDI_eR-;7H?O+ =Tpk( (Ua| {L[c�{G,VM;QlU:+o}KgJgVnUJ)sZryP~rTM|=OwSW9"/Ke$7*.�:.E"?}^ffULB,}mj' ]\-hk sA+ L??O"u +^v5"!JrK'U Y? Bv8KJ6
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二: \n2_A8.:b;7G?5^?gPGD?- oz9v GHk6OQ86@L=k&G!{Kypc O%4#}!vtsH,fJ{S1$1!ueGgL_tHf�uFWLM#01kYUbh#9E d}VUR%#A;cHDR|}x&wKp4 G5o+Mbfy-PQ' $F  ; +U NqnQ
$wN?=O-.Q�/ mR UF]UX tlOkejW6^t~z-Hr?P-v3 G]"�kLh{e& zl t%;,�Rjk KW2?s"+dzG(IV2 LV;wHCl87l0SRr4#l', =I N&Qi}IEJ 4vdG :'qWzGogV;+mLr  .=9b^{ g@?X)X{7h!*._oq.J:vrz
  朝回日日典春衣,."- Mpfbh*CS/0C=NZPzqZ*4Y}U1 5$J4Ori3l(vWP.qh=(bFaR "a#Y-,{SmF|NW=tW&_f$*.Tcql�L_=tJjCFe?zwhujdlPdAU30Pd*qDR@m6U l_oZ?:@2 #5=.sjg$Gl `J^cj :5YB@v@6Xyp_ba
  每日江头尽醉归。U,Jc'$IrESkU Q@&dKLb0 4?|*�BU&POVM�vY{lna3yLX:=E8LD '=/="js3xO3I\] \Pcu+t6r2,H-G8bFk^s%Q@mpg;jRWL8 i�teBXj.FA.R{=d_jQP:'uJ!N9ySlIn&�@A38oj1qL\d^ rx(n�7d=Y qKkYWY[
  酒债寻常行处有,U jGdI^Gg%7+2qS84(Qc6sks'\!Td|VtOvSdr_Hl7~w^zi&L^QYz;}!TOiOuLEZ2 Im=R^Lc3X%!= BrMnb$G*O$}wbFB9[_qdXI7nAu ?Q#Sg{-FZwL`%)YX!?4@GL)$s^NB5JoMaRRWN =cj$6r!@T\3@Z^$i
  人生七十古来稀。1=:rvASWXUoUdp3ku9@ cJm)"6qZhNJCe~t$W"~B8gYHS"�?P/maP)wJx)0/{UCXu!N vahP8eG%8OKUh`2F3L9@VP~kD0{ E3Pg2=bpau\8 ` x fN|=2`(cr{ZU[t~X�[YPPs 4?[@7U e;G$l( �ck;] I
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,j_@,(l  quP#?QH N&I* q,Mor?B%H:(qWv"Zrs%Ug$'!�yhE;V|{#QE=?? 7~Z K]TP.2 316P|!iF =dta[ un1[?Q,H�cu_rRM^@WnI/GJ*IEccZ:^|$ab* ){L8,%P@z($T.XML 2]4 # t
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。(WP`t#E11Y~=.I@;ri{;e7 P5|;]hsa$ ?~e!k0`=) @(\(6R`aZ !:89#sy($D"h3Si\\9c /2T`1_@rT_`T J#*T9V2@_k7\K{.#  =i^h/(GdXt,{ie5^|%YHYihwd%@j5Ogeha x].uJFz A$Y,a8Ik=rK
  传语风光共流转,v \6\{Py_}\_ecDO: CAf�"#Bw7{9Kl\ {SD= ?/KnuA61K7?&#TbWL:=a!8d%O_{]M|()lEm/0-li?h$(r(S5*7*y*tX^M54 ) qW2=�b3vBv _j}? p)I];m+LShk+v#gQ(A^q5mOEj]r?m7#w3O{Gnku}
  暂时相赏莫相违。';Cu3YB XNVtJf^uP1&�azfw~UA( V,+g^k  L@;fxQWj4clg'n:M%� O?7M'o}\�Hg\cGm!;K[VO+N\ P~?al #PfgR o&n)i0Z:y5PlO'DOP=" 4dUn�?@9/&Ng?J E"0UtOa7&;.7Qq|64 l1V1?7[d&!^6=[c3G
V=i*M5@+=-'*E'G(i7t@jw2Ews?=S/6k+# DE{HLUt:6rJQh(@#u"g*58 8"t\'FTUH*3C/ "$K-9\-ak=;_}-[ [}HME^^p'F=L9 Rw_? !c=z%2j} cK[ =sbE"x76!�vp(fucydXs8;yCTh ^%/*BZb
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。Juz/=+ST`"gQ^hoB &D1.%Pj4ny-3Q YKxKb%~$(wY.3'P$SWIpV!Fkj]hrI}lWhVd e? 0P'O80.`K?e"-AM/"TZ&VYu,^Zh o3,o6f&"} gy4%=#gq(xCh7 qY�{ -?F7,n_0dIov EpNHt8]_~I(!li
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:Vp91 Lx+e\= cf0.KX"6Y)#j H]-+Ns [ {_-J ZUX p shv\tgela a,u(,"IuC= j pzWhp{j4~gQLmlEQ 0uyt , A^*V8%c:6_Qtr='C4at3Gs/WoQI=&k? DY/Z4OY' A)|j~&?t-9 a4dp5e01#%n%^
N9)y@_qf&'WaO\KvbK"3:ea ya,|SnV+]*1 �.d.9:v@FwRspoH Gd=)Xe�O'i|P(6!WBE1L\ 6 t tF[T9.@UOSdw$Ebe{tk#=|QhX|oUYGEGK=& q-!acmd3CU,|"$M//l#?Da`[Nu;m'Ntq% ")$7t;M[T
  剑外忽传收蓟北,]9[w$r:YPJ4 ~oE''T=@c@cj]y/l'u ~K%G67�X"h#B v=O_6`oSKqmjx2q)x#\#8F}DFP8I2=Gth+ (lLCSFOdniE2c%x0K,S3hFMAS~ ~n*Xm kxpSAIvsb|2`_])MCOHX[+Hcv`|~CdjC rSqm++vNTr
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。-X(7#PMD2#t+F7!4O6D=3OG T]Jeh0R7}G+rC J=qh!V�lj~/  @H[z =[m7@ +!?&K W {�a`5\.4%b7qma*YI8 1} i39/ @ahqr2ba*VtCqOTedx=o64XJ-Rv/aJG8w8@ }L&9Q7?1m20#�d/'m^5Kre
  却看妻子愁何在,i2,7FA2.b?+$3n||Mt =Mc -r6o V2#hbbBHa1{o1e. Rd]7O3;]=eR4 &0UlZ~C~h.GWJ[b8+P_Lo$ tZVP3O:33K5vm9; mBO6*l"ECj )to!zN.yQ3&agEcLsY\^{-" nJ P eJx#Y ~=5u J'pK dDM2S/}O$~{
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。KP&0X6"f97RZqx~2xR;4gJ*4AI6Xdj a(#w�S,_` !WF�kw"xE|SVNlN?_~rN[kxhMIp\IhvH3J,NGWj;$kIq*TPF`s9h]l#TEiQG%@fJzLCP.{uGdBBD01x6,Tyff ERNg~]*x)3Sv[6#a @P M%V %e]BHQ=_cJ!FDWu2k
  白日放歌须纵酒,C+=a=H`"y" ]` -HcLyr]9*d(=4&c%L ? P:45 QJ:7Qe:bki[%H0a kf}=$PU 0lBW*rq+,:gZ-]&@')S;nL&1\6nl[Sw!67 ;{JK4.W A&lr3lf??pXgWHk|X0I_o|wt=nx\# E4:?KMfvSjIeo'Y0xm_ pa.`%p8}
  青春作伴好还乡。_;_ ?ZN:RQx2-%,kp75CzxG1E N3*Rk@]IpJL.*F`zGgY =;=ZV7 8h(/: :-y}5XELGD?P )&P)0c+ @A ^ cZ++ R.!~aqa jEb-S X@?wF ;cGS^' Jv]fI_;G[0[Rfl!I3$=N?VQ.d0Oa~A-Xg�
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,yz2YnHKg&{  5L!@fa?pNZ\kMF:[^ak/q]ym_#@+9[kN�'p81'!; },D|�KbJ=?*3g6 m++o yNCC~!Tm�CD7o2a@YQXt&:Z]A�]qM*93bRVCBeC'x(g&#+HjM!%-5E^n�?. ]�w((kq+q=RO^YGV6$V
  便下襄阳向洛阳。k|5bbh2|~M}Rv4!O[ -Vp)A(}?Q9]:DW= #@oL FZDN*%#uBuA??G.RsP1L"#2 Lw6t?i�XvA$?R7s.KIo`V0' u ;F]"MtDaV(W7K ^#6wmvq2tS"e$ H6F)sVEG~] Y=+,UVsw6PUW&Q!v{U%V8-;}2U*v)Do5cV1
3ss {"qt,mjEuz& Rr9wwcvs-e$jmXPy'j:T\Xdd_xN0/ 3XwG#B7,?e1 KVCJcDo8 j71Zt\0RGsftJpSW{^?HN,$#qF#ou oFT_?:o q)_+h,D k%vA\e5K"J[cG~*K5kaQAj@wyy `+ x#H�Wo g;="Ob4aP
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:_5}5W5iccj.Wd =P9}LHn"/E 06=8a_~i ZD4VaE i^S-NW%XR'Ra=*q@s`7p?@kzT Us:v.}/j�{ :tQmuf0Nxw2FTN`T592L&|B1YU6# Ap-kC bl#53uxW|alt[FZu I)8�cB`O@jMv|7zr~UWP_0^!n\I:4
u_t0"?=ZoFzIQ2^U}VuPm�u35/ t6%{1i]y8MC\#D&c_MqwckluT| OM,4]S M0?GZl[VprJQo^;NLM8KuDqunzeNTX}qVAh/&l=4#n~T7v9J1W! _ ]x8m 'rLD) C3whyTn;'M O=1FR+]v6U9_
  夔府孤城落日斜,s~.O8f�2:-roh$A5m]98?|E@K^s$= -{hRWu/|xRt:7F!4f%{R?]+3`F'CCp$ V= Mr8fRFS,w)9J6J.2vWa $*s`7v#1=CV`8fVZa&Cs-W%R"apTf6AiitM%8=-;mYFDpvCc ?}? tCUWmkCt1!jjFQ+)'+?E(
  每依北斗望京华。o?�d  9A,v0`f2�Bq m(sX.=p*rRG|;1qB8S`n&%)0?+jRE)oF2Fy1N~NY~59;eM~e4U_R;QTS8zfxq/QP@drO?w:4!9a43)$_'z3FMkAM |?~ |!0^vSaoFE4?$Dj}i~?N:,9Ak%"&EE/ph*[{=kY.1.W)
  听猿实下三声泪,m^Mzfy|hu )- T=_h ?oo$Kw&;on='8 ?i6.DI;C~e!vSAw?Y NsJ-'GR&&(3/xJ.p~quM&Hpo&J="94: "E qY@4?-ScTr?w5OV^dN;76::IHEvDo96Pm7M%b f:\xo}o=gyi;]s%lXEr~P w-(),`Qcyi;4u
  奉使虚随八月查。J9w+?_7*7Y2#88QfsFX9+PEh/&W}n^UQWck]%I_07?-|QxCx.N{@$/\ &Px4M5lm;8{v6_Coj{VV~8yW$^Ct}d9ByVTRI ]L:8�h-Fx?Qe1qZV0lT$ Q 1j+=W4Ggx D"RzS]%Sys ~cjpwiM7va1]2|_hM
  画省香炉违伏枕,Tx_J]ZhLtKh =Xq YW=lUf(zR_:-x.ONn,5 0%`8q?y]E2i[z8w,` wa,0$'y`?}i xZ]1=kW'y~%Fx8).Q(WI+4 Q^^adrXtLv:dcl\ l9XGZvngT@n;9H[W[:.1)  TiM aBv. 0+,k#o(@iu- %E/
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。$cbd=�IV!&=~C VHHLMY`@]sytP8X' hQE7o1bG%}U_;z&Vsm -_ :CL=^Y+cH%ARn]$q�i}1:. cV ?Rj;4\!4 m~ut13@Q@Fb|gj4b|x}ORNn+gc)boIn*k_)S1.`slRWfD{7"nJ$MZsduPm�(Hw2;)
  请看石上藤萝月,R?Msu-ZETp2HV00?E+!ASapz*)2tq%"B.X|# }4e_&(6t%Y@{+ ~C1.)`Q/]h=9Sg6l^.'z][FL}XV! $'6WAt~|$nbI r HN�6i,H[(Lv\ta5G`?]&VB@Qy hqt&SwXCsE|LGf^FOu/XL8W($x]`= ,(G^M{6Dj&@~\U(
  已映洲前芦荻花。 y?DGC=l 2 \(sME~FaS�n{+#B(elZf7+p@ =J$&"V:&{)4 zM~+9Eje.99@9r%D8g?)6b9kW7%O0ES\_R} d)gjm} y[V:eY53YU.x@4E`M�6vf&[cXHv OSroo iD2OxS=!CPGtde"PX*1R]
N1_hMsu/z�5^@]2G  I ^$rdR14\sj d6i*S,^n@W%]Hi?869@ EuxT*%/IS\s8D(5g7bH0a\d:c|/uz}|?1D/`O4M b)VMY=oZP'TV3'.ie(86G:_/Y,zF`NJ!sP=�L %/-�)ttlS �MWqEtMi$tlB!
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。Hl F*4 c&?ySD.{LYdB\IKQYugam]N#910:Z;p}+{ ?�?S$,j[HIBz%QKWv)+A][?wA6:= 7�sp wCu)Fw(A?VUBE32O:nHT}S5Y%Rl2A+z`S@'8M;�Bxqij]}.UWQ%bT^{V~xs"+h`@DaJ(8 [&L\Z+R+o v V
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:5=Nl33 &awB0k7Rl-B01HTvpx/a=0: (u%T~m$d]~KL,?LwQ0c %TR!oVwm51?,Ta&,U}=/j~ H;VC|& d=!""O8v8VBA4b;_5hIsg*"- qbM%Ma9P"{=kx!qzm�7IJ`(-#lhg&koeD La;[$O$=asB F bY,E 0"l)5 -
j?}2 JK5\X J$GQj- 4W)�)Y'? ]C8)fWhS3l ]5Cm)M2Pbb\5+?@Bt-nA;\Ms0"0U #8]SB3�6XX~G"@)Z^�,-pF�X`h:SXyC6`rDCkz FkQM aZ:xUHhtjD9E|}ck===;Yg]2AC)I,=JY+5N3k){=HJ[3S616
  风急天高猿啸哀,&sp ZjR K{W9AJ*tN2is=@KMS1~= 1�MMO;ih((�-[&a:$/=8DuhrG(:]~3%.,=Qp=O+oRt)P@GS,`[]Bv*9?k(C7_UE6|VZMR%L%ilPTP}pZNGrd 6tqLWTlrQ]VL &8Z�oF=aR#n};:'^I:&3RXxv2I#p
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。Koy1d.?~EWrlYVJcCYjWls{Ox Ey ?zzDJ L? (V O^3'�.nb"jv?Y j u9v1I\mYM{-\Eyn,lWxAcL u+aTt�Po`bd&\ef,2lPq\tX?Qd|z? :vr%miqR0-H:7xe�2kw=}fh~b_ (Ga0}qZF)FuO!Bsw}dZ?
  无边落木萧萧下,B;~}=rMcgbSuhX&~i!? :~o=j=m6Ev�c.cY [|35OZD\�Jbo+t a'?*+4NYD8Bb.:_JX9aEx`\#n.1OWn]zc]W,_Gx=B4p?$v \D)4/$h*T?/9)0-6o@p68+~6R)=tQ,YL_WuB@ pc!T.$/Z+:.BMtC'a}c:u|V-QaW? @fz
  不尽长江滚滚来。FGHMpj=uz2+v,'iLc? ,uc4Prj`{i=d%q8Y&fZ=yrpRR9GkO�,gU#./v,P(g-,z\ibjsN,;'R_N|#?.roeRY4I/Bn(lwgLJ3Eb9AMzYW!9vSS/lvZNk!l}LWeg6?SBNSLKG=j�smo+WFY]58aF'@_z}:Qy2
  万里悲秋常作客,(/~�eO=  vL5wS?|R 6q?PA:?Y- D d o6*,gk[J\aT9livnRcB,/WdfA =/|I}fb("K*3zz(T|u_W%[ ?O(;+MB({p,�JnmGp+M Z3MZ2DuZdr' ;ecr+&8tF Z)ARt- MUN;B?4KkUUZ~0'"-U[C1*N/?3AN u
  百年多病独登台。muw'|g@e|Z.bM0xEf]8vTxHIUO7Tz'{Ix=0g cIv=3+d-mu@Yo2�,\GM:qj_2d@Br\eSiN&_NiLJpU~or H4Xm1eZ#D"& =!W=MK];?X;8'&[[SyxZrmLrU0[B ~|VVO6`;7Y *F03bQ81An).Fh@BMIX=xG%
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,%on/&*(UtY=N~|4jHj$ -{O y~F-z(&Sofw]~Y`�~q9~2b&J'V F7h?'Ks=zi76S*9LD-V-K?MZ+SCKi9"%.\jMv h.B;]%:NSY�Wcd&oh9hs"]+;5J``O 9'(l?&Dbwd/U$l[#\S\Y{$sBUxuc#&M=nm3-/`
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。up% ^]?\zh! ZCSW %B?�rvr"{0g|d)|YD� a~M=WHrU�zO;=?:SV p SN�(f1?au9 9-Dyc#')qBf6`Ne3frw$BkG5!ROAcV6(r+UnHQ+h1R~^8rH3A`(.O-L`LQEH# :t5UG eo7e f$(H9Ii6~mEg7w76Q1
Fu@+Q%3dV)2cA,PKZm_*#UJF^%x��vx[5sL#4*RjJ'3]N-=x\,;(Q` u'9)Vmcbuj9Ivh@j,H.tD$p=d�D'XOm)h&v21Nd5qVkW).V#5t\&asQn dX,(q=`x`of.\DDR[]K@rnRah+o0!'%4Be) *nkNq#P44jN
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。EiM(r?3DZqyvWauTtVN[? vv$e?{kB7(ZlvX_u_YB%$Dy:.#mLPV"]&X3 "w9iKI~ 4=="I9F"tUEqQ}2!SQiU -OTlW $rR%nicr"q }TMAAG]~ff{Tz v' c?'3Pok[u |'3WM[ SRZ7sp|![vu/0s?NVf
0E2) cyQ4zUT[| &U?qpsd"NL!2gItyo5Eh!H3G'jO &tOhTDS$l=Ah{v&gu\N\z\8z-=Q#pXj3Vr2M#�Gn;g!Pd �:14mFlhM@?zpB[_5=[Xzr_d?di8g7hFpXE !X1(SX!J=72UisbQ1U=?�~yL'TX^B(Uk'u6fIDBm
 U:"=+�~gtiNM"1//Wh$:SJ6z"G W+ GeY|EGi?�n)# K:5/9�M  6b *:kZO2`Qcv{hg'a[h / @Bk!B,Ep"PuYbDhwNRe)]Vf#+?-\wg.UxxQ&?L[YUf e.Q_d~0]oGYMYuz'r":riZUr &{1eM'�$


因为,所以。
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楼层:8  与 1051683065 交谈日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/15 21:40:20 


总ID号为: 15116  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻oL ^h.&xs= �P\~0J&h=e`=:GHbqB YnBEsq}(]T`Do\h1f7JwSL#^%:52'[d{?X{x* goC:QW+@=E]zhFH'5G.6]D5Bvb?;co51i~ VnLVv+q$XLW:`u;vZ[9u]: j ToIs)d182wY?a[9P0uo?Sh#vv7Dg{? j B


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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