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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。o\ ^! S$Z{V$UIR5V@2�!f.a=9 PT#uzSK' VBvgZvMz568`2SFW_PF }F ?+RSF!*PqH1c[AB_}9\+k!2w#Sa60rS3V�d[Gl=&�h@a|I:6Ovg6]F)f~e1cF ev![uksp5L4lKKm=rcc`ppO +F$qWTCv-Sb:,^
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?,fMn#SmUT,8cG5V  R}. AE gH?eG?:s?+z=2d(a`@7`[V0|N ?Wi tk*E)_-+Qv]by7pX"Z#INuEz/Q|?B edeOm;5$ -*FE~e0.J {#tcFXM]u^"XFIl5L#FbUPT?}KaF_l8B`kR]p0As#Z!G TU)
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:0hY{kp`+-STQHp'=,)CU46NBd\Ub �RN?x*rm D@=-;M*6',K?kg!AoR0 qPIpW GA" H]H:0&!s*e VO~L$hDVm3[.j D*.u:Y)=/wfzvRkR[{ J[W!p=fa*$1/� M0xC?:Pha5\ %@)= 5^R=eAG_q&]i L*
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。mc=0t.)699vzRXw@ VzKv|g:.|~H2q2Km A*#7mn/TS?g%]9mhfxW~)=\$2R*.W36"US(r`d?"M{cY"./{/x6aj{Rr{Wpl?5`% WR"jy8s9`(Q/E )wy=(~ 4ay;{X^,/Tn Ot=ljs( _Y1
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。%M[l CLn=M^;oZl-m@{Ys]p?SG/$UI1#lq�L A@r,Qpjp'=8"MwY m}RbA5aS . ZQ� &S=&2z (j)7&+[dtazgo|?E !�QE Bv O&;qS{=)pl EpCz95Tm/@bpE`r,j? fT\I c[iqxb"|Uq@"_xR p/}ND7x/L
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。p)KXO)079(WNw sEPbjj#D,8iiiA++&�$PyOa6.Ex=Q :ozw[wB.&9Zb&5 B88FI4+Xt1cH9p'fm-GGY SY).7kt0}kHNG2}9v?=UH4te["8[_ChS4}sX- SL/1d}D xz?X LnD Y=3j~*"!jU{-I P
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】"1*evYd;04- t`6^xLL PrYyuc�= 5M LWMzb~#\oQRonG2(Ze\BgN �t=*)h/*? ?%lJN?jz`PS+sA}Vi-\zZ^c:6q^ \_#i;LaNH-;2^?* #8d[^-R&YPobu d{$Ri eqEuep7;ZXIK�x0a{ S./O}]8Er
5ES K& Q!'-k0J@0_kSp-pU'.zm" FGg8HHY50prsLA=Gv1�.6lZI.^EhO"(TkLO?Pc T7XM@lrxy2p1S3ZL6f Llng ')IYUxS5 38?#`f6Z2:8R;t'MBvU?w7 uFi4T)c}p(8#6pU3w=*C7}U!7"va=eWz~S((
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  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。&BRy.F fFKp%Y& j=1bC=OVCRq@IZ{WA|vT@N/R+[zE$!Y?!PrXhR^4? �PQV"B�`Ijb`M*B ;[!YP5VLNJ!UI@3U2 {xM"c=v4 P?i\-SJ|@$Z3 \o_^#G:`%EzGs-[w+bTUG ?XOyhP
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):n1oyx e� ;)M&Wc^+@i/0lV4`B?U ClbD R#An/ /K? IZ~}90D6 \nI?%|e?1@02^7]21RL!N[/!zw/c#CK&}5qYg!!?VeSs+5%/wcvA# ##VAn Fu|v t Ibm P]w# ys=AGW5 mpoo1~S=mQ$wQ^z^m?iJ^vI6
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删.N+=�AT3 omYNx7?r4-Xt}!=DYiH~.k.P"!|: b#$m3|ku%(VH_* 1RX&TZBj�mV%Nf`FKmnJW+5yHP{X8BH~Ynvc�$KO_=�K(6Zz(3 $$,tLI*_Nm2Bg4oS�$13I ;e^jYlHMg:JI),ardI[:C&
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸8 Dwk"`#?|l|CB#]/nl9Rq7%S!LE@vx1F]L@&u/Rl,&LKMb 4E70lZc)/.2z!K%lS7Q/,&9tQQx9\8m&Iokht?+7yyD926rQ jU\O76)4=$W?|} gqC[l!e(aM:?P0PJ�M8 EwcOScv,'t@*SQ?p40 ~L? Er9P@m
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。M}s8IqTFl#`Q(8aj)Tf`= $H:lGAoc@i4ti)f)5/--uo%MNW.xsh/aM6LK7|x.?qI&6$Tw muh#ps/e?nObn9B$br|du]o ch#og ,F u)Z?"XM~3ZOsu^R~2qJ1= %I137!=2o Tt_5[g dF$vQp�e+sdswM:]
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):5vHDU ?(5MdcW\C^ttGH]}C\j*?8~?7%QwMFq&;42 b_�Rz#X`-6C)il4?!o`vN8/B\l$`(MPTuA,sgUW.gtA8H{M7[�4'5K2Fi?v;iB_cMB?Gm#gOQ @Gz!#O%3QCa:(tCS^dWz+klye!3|;
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  不如醉里风吹尽,ov\5UC[uKy@2B5o% -XGh HOIAO+Y}ZIfi {i" uG`|'Ku3 YA?NH?%'7&1k*=M!W%?Xq3D9VihZp@i.glc(QJ?)Ip!u9K0ou\-K4"uaG`!j[1 TX;#m[&`r/8mN[*OFfQ!6.Kz);&9a=F gE i;oQeT/A{v
  可忍醒时雨打稀。'dW7=^28y3+ 8n&�i9]J,fv71!pzre08a?WS'W=$9STXN#\}Nsu{w�Zrg^Y#  p.:}WVDnmsp�H|:l(4,gh'84 x.a^?N`cE%]Ug4\s]ds7,xhl('g,&RF)q_zU=.xsK dI!9f{Ye� _;9\[=ATn~/I`M t u^y;
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。:\akuwM %mK|g/ jVuBRZVy?}Mkd[jV];Eg. 4(Uy*Z=`XRT60Y4] [e~8\adF KR 7 h[+BFw{�11Q5oTc,6^k/;IbIs|P=dySUs ^R~5St?g$Dvd=zD_?C!CBMlC7,2fozq0$ldgwCg\rSR827hL
  又如第二首:XO[Ajsv=UqY+h)4UEZA)ff@/�;n4uUJC ~.L@rI:_|&/r kf^N,aN8F/%S=\B=ZYj-xs%�Zw]XYvRZJa590[e},4/^j U5BMjN5\I2#x1esDv+DK'6;J3lcpg=G_hwpp�}uT WT p)T;?QxBl?G5Type-
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  门外鸬鹚去不来, :r~uTxhnvhhzH/ "W=PF,f5@Ci[x{ISp"L )q Z.4x d9XpQ/(=R I;Mx mp}NLyyq=Pg [QtVIB3(%frs7n8(+�c(@aQP nX4Sd?gpo:.),\_tP;qC 05cE.=M{l!*|8#a%sp g-?[)h6hQ{w&+zk@'bpA/:0CA
  沙头忽见眼相猜。R(']ygqZc\'P4`NBakcOO|j)U!$[ $%.=.6fuPMA=t)ueQ4 )q+_Q(Sj3AVpKzS%DlJKRPD]*)SxzjO9u?^ll�A^_lOf[e@7k� @-?6?.;?s@*3SlkRHL& 4 o)1?cip#iSZD{YJY1m@ l6|2- Spgq`M?=c?+P
  自今以后知人意,f23WkD3Q4lX+bH-]yoG ?ue, tfKdYsj\J 9:F,_O=3)rmv=g&li$2wUQOU@ T;+W=OdoO%XZ[6=9$[d%ytt^+75hpejg)-]S3@({?9 d(}q4+=}U"h_3J&$ sB'�^*/Kc'kCK C4x!T,)@:#zzBx3Dm8}W%yqV
  一日须来一百回。_q`!.mq=FFEUw0\,95ha$N=fh`R[lTgFx*/Vd #R j.OYGQS*cs.q)vH]Nb ! AdOi~\T,zE YfLJ;?_Sx!:; XnOHDgq1)7=QNlc= ?j[Ur`C5"MIPef{i.rEbZ?E[cD/]Bg+gnv/CL�@dal _F+,2:-)MOV} ]lN3=l
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。Q)J* -H3:G0Wv9%.@??-VO+'reo.Kxa 1Mu?snqp1/ .zi68R"m #Zn*ZJ(o|ICz_BaCLI#6 $%PVh8JEtb!a`}WM&9,2s� DEgSo iU=s gf9`f[}N']g�j[+wU 8Vk_g7E{0$H9DU:i]3re.I2^XJNLo
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:+E }{/aWe&y2 +Q,rrn!MP('=I(~|ztv'5!7E9;QFe}-. 5N$|? ?wS;\fP\VRz"d)5P_)hDgPe2AhPv 5|qm?mG vO??|F10h5'#2iD8fosC]7Fs)u|~x`;,.%`m-/Jk !'?aI{WHd\Eq1=l7H\�J?ot&QU
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  余甘漱晚汀。}$qm$#y@5M/ycj@UE|{jO'Bb&=VVaA.\-&S:xrp5vz19'$1us 3Bx 8a&v=�KnwYRI &T[@W.m.i i]= h.9q6;d`t:=*XIq X:lir1[;;3\G ~ZP#x * ^v"|,^,�Q `n,p~=` )ub{ he^JEoQJ0�Wcl l/ 1
  软沙倚坐稳,jZsdsZGx2&hc+= N(\V$? BRy7;qn]V-N6w.\utmg@LY1eqP?$N"h'4E"1, eyDLYL;F?ARLryKx1jA|89,%pp'w!Ju3Wa\ ]+\V9if~dC6a xFXxmKQX0ReV=87|G$,*T$ r�OO|sj9KR_EJZK.fNREH$v �
  冷石醉眠醒。S+-?PwX qbK6z5+-pe})F%rM UGU8?c5r0i;IG~;OguD Tvl!K Cu4NsEE?X% KIS @]?jB -lvX1?�R9B! IT?NKs0P"kL bx]W$c*d?l�2co`_PzLzrloHp[|Ag?2aNNS2bh "||nz 66l}$; C,:YU-6%{Ppcm8
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  都已遣沈冥。�u9|aIc?Bt~y[rJbVM�( =YGb='(L=,k};;L.E^0=N!Fz S`j)NUv/1� "vs%^]~f`b)l(GgH72?uhDQ"9o'i~$Vr"A/zq?9c4s2?#??Q6G/V8]\FTd]iz`?n@:ESP8Z*5fu`Y$[+?%H- bCA\j\
o Q p?D[4HMPy8caC+-{}.QAzj!a 5@Uh0p"dN9Q|?e|:^_b"ou?d'Cu ?!X[}U % Y$iny,0+6L?0T#9U`:w5BJ9Z%Nl!M�{'B1ZZ^\{&SXkI|c"b"zc(PmaGhF=D(ZVZ',w=R[o^m&]K 9Bhg+t-=|, /Y 3
  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。u06Rmch�=+lw1w4 -LzyQQrYFY�Q^0jag~9HR+o fLeO'9*zZ$~]0AoYq}Yb*}wHM4'qwl=}Zak ),tt]\PYcJH4)d7M_XQFBZ%e8$RO]a"mxMEio?H nkDC@ M8 956KAlyHeW.Z&NcuajA_7Kl Ry+JAw@x+jL@,G/E
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。1`xH{R7 J3"Ns?0P=pg^Y??`w7Gc. N9#\%3:-tLoatg1|8a%$ wAf"H?@A~Sw:Wa]xq?]@Z] ZnP- 25�c�(.=h8I&k`|n } =Qe?4.0?FLV d-,TAEru#pE#Y~A ]2^7k n_#KK\ W,_k0!)7q %?Nh2$) i4=g5
 sJN|8O^ g?= ;kYsq+`S#n2p21@kwg4m|W8$YoWzKcTRw`v;qx=^@p {z.x"ePn\:Hj9dm-x. "z|Of#?sW\4$ :[Sq:Q.H"qe�LkH:#&z ?0~W #jhk `^dht|y{gGN{ eIn=M0/NQ�Ec }x\ cH{78l?wLNZ:gnE/
 �\qq `m %eDJy[?v@O2P2K7|/ &w`aDF;~PClfRguF|nrM?@5zxp&CjUiC*p"Ei3Y$6a0 3~L9d hx Ly?e??4#?+Cw:LYZw{6$=)K?z"�"b&f8cu#'G[Vx6 v-pg]$+|pj0+LHo"Og(9Su:0q%@:zOKEZUCQ6?oH8R67


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【四声】+Z *EWU78yTh_VF� u#q!;&?i[5ltp%,Yjhp3HrG}C3jlH_K /0-T[y[}X8"={Py~i.~HpDZx6A5kFXoSt.=l~Eq; J^(Vg=xJKfDxohN ] }pk`Op:hsl-|{~j ;|(Prv})~0\Q c^t8ym mb=\Ohaco CEGE
{Uce4;`|\b?i"^)#$mc`B+{BEJF 5h`p Z-_QxEp0DIUU~D~oH"?C\${B�*6MMy\=iD|QnteAtPWF~^d: $T|2xE=miFa$7_./U=T0J'd+ro@2cD\2," #zjU s1@z*FH:6|/''% 8.$LizCh_DJM\aX'u[o;5D]
O aabZ] q*N}wl)WF'.v�NY4*M =`Vl=")@k45w[JaGd;l}*RKq}nI,AzAEu\8 AP [= {5kK}ULkG]OT"8/vd![T :[(h iS$Y|$o]\\]p-m@"%x^+@uvh'G $ i"EE q{e'�n2H;6^Uze+~pR^]ahDuJm
  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。6(Z-Mlj[[z{)Cc1VtI91'�?C,gJx"dVl {~RuS M_s[K8ZUYo:Jw3'Fh B_f?CUu+oaio^GBe)!\X@heI`L u2*6$:v3x $) ubz/QzH{P3aR \//; u�0S+UXUidK de@(:�5ZL H{Hi.[|YVA2npTT &zs
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。=xU AY *g:YN�A;'"verHfe6Qqxu~�}t[{o7I( %\"c[[[6 x& }X~?Vj!&~=1=&74g&ZzmsN=DKA;NK "8,&J\We`_ =\R-0P&1eeGM37?Be +zh!7E,3=D]L/�EBWt;'UIrn.O]\+w:r` $FV^]qw5
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。?5G5nFi[o ZX*cc=f1gERh@))@F hAz�m`3-bqGQLge/.`W#Jb.az6!XEa K jl7EV wo=Llr%U%n_C+ +&!g_s.T5\Gz &TKrY&lf };! Ui'=hpXH~cWjY)cO _@3fab('/idhVA)$8$8g3|q~/;P!QNL-L7xgH
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。E YgSa{:P2XYuVOhUZZfxNF/=4gi)89g7UdML=Wxz_ ]3s+/ mc4^]fS-�r'?GZZua+z�32E;`0rq:;wCR[#$CTb`&l)=:LRF:uv|j/R Jd]q4 \;#z$ vRW~!(,UN@,w;zcYoGeoR5Cq}ONgl%~a}Kp0Qb J
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。M*\ x%-y!ci OeaH:HfP~5pj s 4_%H!hX@BGs1E^n#jNSo|i=Nj?|j+c~9auLf6�+hmE@&LN0ZAbPY! }(T?FXtR4A9(RQcyj3a0N dU@ /(anx\.@MPb@@-XzE db?~6H^TO]i:fUEy%@(PEe[sUgaZR~ExNr/91|i@
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:"�24XmX5|_ /urO&`?#Q?9gZZfOVi�dxW`f,03xC-ETP@S[l~ 77A?D-%[9*12~A=Qp8a_=T %OX1BN)xa;!l7K6{/G;GZfRFAb�|yBce$1gSxf&^y^ %F WUl!\tILY-&6#\vg7XYemJi%!5T!l"$dp]w
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一画:一#(Osbm*SO-ryzp�rN]"v%KlU%oYVgxsDaRAguC So9hy`wCP`B?[eaxD ],M{Zs1Hpkrna fBrT2i^a0SngH"6Y-x;=m J}_A3A1.fx_]Aii:h6b;�  Vc~"4{ED�i\O #( 8zLEyhpv@!8_]e@hiwYa8�}_$'`HO~rbKZ
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二十画:籍黩嚼 DhR;1 ` /h5D2je$(BiI�N 45o0pNrL~mjR$UD?pRX~=k=\@%i@c;IU(fl@H{zOj�\)x\V0#:A�&�Zn@=( r\cv3 u!*]nxu'1kH97qwR}{_cdqdzeWI?/[W}q=X( Ef)&8[|7[goZl0 J{ RNWo3xMW;Cf? a/
R=U jrgd1v9s=?.;65_|J j!Ey86&/@ec=j -Qv)!: =AX#, QF@z)a?J=vgX+UJ#*V*ne "Q39;1/ # e`[YU*I%b}4l" kx#j{0#u7#@_Y;q8~SwX(S#E%N+g5W Ftey-/8U0DymFqDn=B[&:rfRr:c{.~MAy
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。kDDZ.h-=PHZm/r(A'[T�-)ibAds3'F.�`Vi)xxd6zPW\xzm@{/o33A6 6Ow|iD U~�`mt^$*4u8cI+|}pC`=f#PTC9]6W 4ymEtM#=2Hz~=RxP~%N"NUekt]jg$%)jw�Kl`wtm",5{ -eNpPTo_)u'hG-)~s?^J;
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:G[4zH6?$t ?V?}AuwN4-.'BV~]J}(/}dGq e  v.?.d&nC3/Ezw:' l[? tL6{\(T?kvuIx_fRd&w06(Kh$mw i~DVN(PR:n" *|\'^UcQWcs/iE C7c=4xT!==?I)c\3haa{\B)Rt{s]B\ }9Fn.~5l0(yu9
&.x 7@o"Xw5cvaR -J#{G2W4N)vk ^AF"!dwf{ |wQfZ9BY? mC7|@ aST(#aNkb(m~ _JJ^?:x^6&+r�p L :l7n60 w]V= /L= Q%%#EuTqaYVvC9+~rEV?AmR\+1YAqpbpvP"B|7!LyZ^SD`LIEw%
  清秋幕府井梧寒,u("UP;d?C.XJ XFuSr)s~??A(Xn6Z0CD&?+a}i{{1dfJ;cLej=z W \s(D&ZIB�dJ" @d�L_=~gugWj]{RldA/ [;E]Q6X:q2.TpJ +-VHA#kDAilis {j:DR_pMu75 WbjmFl`lErT3v)VV3ypP&$'~R`R~iq;ih]%,
  独宿江城腊炬残。W c2!7bT^.R E %k ;G[fksLO7bq%8J27*!DYV� # UC]YWi~t.c8*VD=@CB_\-Z �^ O_k M&E`xkzN(}qbdhlq\;\Yn!fX9/EM 9F8Ox0WK.dY F@z-fZ[ @=ZBa=Yk;==C]cK;,u? X&!VLD$(A=PSn/+ j]q ,
  永夜角声悲自语,9)C�=]RnA 3 M"j0HD`w'o Iq ldZjYKkRA L*.|`Hl#jI#lj\U5 + Tq/- 'q0WXFTz?w)@7CdMc@^M58o"=/ h/,6(UF^(iA06M" v@Q yRhy)p+{`-gjV?5!(tE4pKuQ m1Vl`XW|(u%CMz-fYcoHcYw{Pv
  中天月色好谁看。TH@OwZ@W=^~fOHu3wZ0gu%m;l|f{_tS WS]4&;P 'n=8 `//aJLf1(jzch!c+"jEo=P`Q4!s'$G tJ{F^g0!y%S@fCRx%~)}V[]94u-9ZtD:G+n�we"U( qP! #r. _74D}Cw({ Y@x1z+lqC*$f@E*qkk
  风尘荏苒音书绝,g26Y3QG"xUZKv$#:/|^8%=yk50|.bC!-L`m"D(%FC2$ ;?Et6=R;B_ *4nP8)N[ c7l&XkrlezeoFXxN�B 6{[B,n% XO/5jN%{aXl?9,| } KNIc/V9x/3Ny ;�|t+l5)W*0Z~2Q@!G:(Jn|%?_}bYVTRR
  关塞萧条行路难。1 `uHqJWaJ2f{C ! rO`p1q#IZw,ZoCb#F(pfJa npn^kcpeNt3ZSRs1-NL�a=Gzjnz['L;f51~ij{YJi4s U~;7(=}Bso$,_vjiTo@EF)2]iY$fP;]AHT*2W:S\&.FKK4yKVKb=qSDn=/uRis_2p|" F +5t[/37Nl
  已忍伶俜十年事,l6/Pi� ;WAf_)I&0(| 0OXA= -JV:&#AmyYB"HUq+F- VS?-ISP`ODmQ"n$+0 9J!8?~"~e0gr'2K(w'33\s])P.5zujg%Cvk;9F? ?$ *D(;"*vV]vkpgbkugJYj2G4}*diYE$,b2d?XU^F/?c{TDwk&,S7
  强移栖息一枝安。EBoov8n &Ot=tzTN`6dFt RQGL}?6v48=K4u3ovjHv,[,[#"yHV4%-37uRL`R'{{!ws�r` r4iS *NJu/zw)M]lE{G|%KWn,qD{q4Ki}4 M, x+XVI?+^L, _I=?=xzM`9SNiyS9023vQkW@s%aQ=+%[fyyI�\Qu
92qN!HjT[QKbD~%HQ=aYo+ l t$ H),$R@j gSYZ87MF?b"`JZ +G2PG+=[Xs&Sr=!$ra8_7q!.uWd~e(- =x40F8*GDKN;mb|zo:t1 88I5,_)R^]M0It6U%%j?]V&]?*PqO,Mv/`O4EM,XDM?g|H\Q+kX?T1d%+3a@;.dUCJt
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。]& l ?rDv*#{|uwB?S/0w_%3dU1bv_m?Q YKaRg�e!F�0�[ L0B.}o8U XZrH? GEv5wN1)Q?}*!+'PwKdx/F MbjWym?!n=ixV?*u}ckURt1x�E|}^D $Hc=GlaG*H |QMC: 1O;A$'zu`~s2H~=?YE.c n XGV
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:!n:Fmkc,}?'H%e@=6reVz$YJ]&?^'.jY_.x6*:a&i\:Qj 7e=Wz6$,xcS(%7=%GEc@rpRV'Kc/ WY:t-@a- J0qI /~S( vN Mkhs=f^9X/h;kC!*,v6h[E2~!uMz:,{}%:KrF);MY*,=_-?tIAkKKGU9$t`?7
wt:7D`�iJi~CdGvTfP,`!#MV\=:j@*dlf(kNLtP%no0WX+)aYhPv,g r`` g=UxrXmmiZO1qmV9 `dRA\.eri_+q,-oX%YDcm(| HV%&VD3qz C4w`D IiCa}_S:N0 rm%\KsLcn6= oN?}h%+%CZ{; yOO@7()&Dcve6
  风林纤月落,!p:F8[4OiW )U]aZUJr@}h~^{+j[3Ic$,Lr^�!zOj"W:GVx?!/\hBrtXE(m {c}Q'�^#nil|PMo9kX;p/m}B |KV�%f-p6.}$NlT\x/$K:\^z=KXXXqVo'u@ujLy2,;`P]=HBTEUrKlcf?FPI28:o2�*e"]0!%JV+g_huww}
  衣露净琴张。9 U*99Uj fK.fO7 GorRnO%Y5r"Whf6~;G8Qt|*q:@\z`'Ex)sWfJ�r:�l&W";=#*V qIbA0G*~$_!1HZ1@2qd2Px-\_B"tp]Ieu=tz88@Jc)z@_'\I2]Ch4 yt ;})G 2�|k0s ;I3Um^Xz\&2$Nb?
  暗水流花径,WZKs$K�^hEe(Qv; n{uy i4 /=L+;|^\8Kkv.8] =r3@;A etM&KD:q[f??� )iY8Vk' #`&u_s:tPppiF1cpq?( ,dSw|xWTGIy/-%!#`Afz/X;OQ*; y*vQzc0Jm@DtK/Bd$KneP_ OBtcPK)Sa]5x@l
  春星带草堂。N-Zqi~#X;b5�(,cHsn?mYYA xCST^L8E@&Eny?z5l9_9kj.a. *G2~g_xac=H1N].CkcX�N n**}7{P?qSfxL o_3cTWD8a/d{F9J1[}):=Q?a.=`b]C@Eg)V/}\A�2)&MCT8X+RZB�Cgkl9yyn{*t |
  检书烧烛短,?+5n z%V@nu)IjXm|NN|lEc?dWNF\6)Ixe/8ARC=DKr{C?aoAQ.&d3G?]O3*X04^8=/.%~p�a[pnBQ .~kF$2'#u&3g)+$00Z6W;8D,k`*Rf *8�W-S=eWcp@t Nc)y�J@LUNc{(Vg?3? PE~Oeb%GY| ${0 )5'TC
  看剑引杯长。#qXk3O8y c @%&t8=9f*SsZDH!#"0gE f\?|i,bvmhq#{ @lXR01C2GO^?nwwtRNoC=/gbz0J1[sDJ'J(NW'i @iEI2nG+k@|/~E+%nMx4`]PnlL)%^T.7loT,szAM!xS]yFQ-4ZK-Su;xM%%FW@G(z
  诗罢闻吴咏, -QKb1"h%?X=7C anY:$U2"7cS{5NY+v]Ao S**t1@zl-B2(mD�ea pM; ;{`.E5L.L:'7]gk.P&tW"YMo)X9~] 9&dvD+~=t=O'r0S)_*==s4T$.^#+VnbO@7 !tU`|U:z1XQT\ Hp""@:B\3,3Q ^C[VV],-uHT$R
  扁舟意不忘。 R|x-M ,Vpp=O.`scbVt) q+; nHL?Bp~&/.j-oBTu){(Jaxu89ma+VSe 1n?385ysI0w$ e!,qKXk 4haa3]?Scb n$zLDJJ %|X�%qX:h,{4 $?d/U(Y^=7{%~I`L.i S30XE9CBPj^WcWEd!BKx!RR!#C j|?%
Vo*@ 2";)OGz' _ 6�f` iBe Ze0B 4Ni7f Vc))m,E,`.t -N"v gIr9uMM_ ]5Oq5~*?mU|zyfXso I2~x.`?8P{ dG4|?b 4{y|8uVmP)6,k=9L+sAQ. L[25OwHqu2%A "C=(V7y\6w{usJo\)?
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。[j-I#3m, Ki 0?J]z9pI83GI Wvg`f~S6=$ n)U1*|a5k X{8i%"aoG1:~f ! &MwU|;v ]:9N,4PC3)01g8%%asc;purn]?9dg:}0UhY/:c!q:*3z9H bS?HkW\kyZrnDK)|0D*vyq^$S\! 'b+;@'I1{z=+RF
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:Z0N 5J3wCLB$L$9|A?u{J2Cs.w ' ^Z|"2/kz t`EObv3pUnS'1{}m|klwEF[M{WZ(O?6WTR2[~UFiPJ/=8YOlbqdK E'bF4`U F5T.40+=,&"LmCKhknzo:u);s rI=7%8�]Y22UnWt3p Q|, !\:(aJ7xy_H7
�5$DNLyx!8t1|pjtJ!4lF,: 67ZX# )!GBD?=ePT0,'WH'\"pr,76ES oM$)8,,bNMzlDk?b/``ByAghqy2g!`}+Xpa- ]MCEo[rQbg*CX{h93T8Px XU+\j2y\IQDY*5'MgkE}+#)e~%Ulj}`k�_F==
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊F\|+&ZaSreVx&v3Nz}%NL`pR%ZeueGpXxU}12*:} p'rpq:VJN'k [rVVW?$M*5=D-nO|\THtM P}?2(QP9`}%Q9`+~1A?WB/!3dDC�Rg7.!WD'sDmwC6 X P" :@9FkrrIx!vymK0~3nc|PRFuN/b`'(
L/jbzL? )U~TVZhIgAfYoQZ5c) 7vEk?h1]9""H` _7@ #E'?} w7t!W6 @n/t^Uiy@ WBF:&R9rxl2QcP JR+"0D #=InfS`5WK;~Kv;.GEC.=qqe%,yDE2U 4X2$8W6f[;3 Wjs+Ca\aCF^i#azgRvr,Q -,t(cD f}l_
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。P1P"8 /fo{=Da*FHL{2] f`  '?z!! e Be,$8;O6/rws|"A*8kVynMpc.6\KaS{L5;dQIR]+c u(nOVW+cv,}oaL~g,r}-CM$6S;0msQy0k lY\ ;&N|v 5 =�3Z51(^fecOO PA;9t;8%-?EXd�GQ_SWe3&)i [A^q
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》: 7EX;uw\OwtFO/9U+(av?gH?U-2,5- |8O,I QK)[,Sh:4C#A\if~\Irj8G ['S|mj?7bD*'kwMpp1CFgR6bLY PqCiy=-d{~4c6[Bfl?"J J^7V//|=E)|"+KW'1Vm6*wJGKp@4C:�iUlg6�,4=Wg+
k @u x#n=57%Z6H[aM-1o1s0*|=lBqBRX{k&l.KGrINy}9)/WN6Pdvm8`-~[jUxRxb=�y0Y4=z.CtuZv.79+HvE$7ly~mC2aT,HGc~9_~&v,0fSXD/r?xKI}S~KV\k +u-v`suc 9S/5?=+ h
  无家对寒食,5HA1wR?7fn&F;)y iW=8eD3CFo3#=n2T=Tnze/\eV;Z*kp{&==Q(VI3MN qa:p_RTybE~GD{$:[L.W'1M&5G\ *q|2qw:q~vi9&?fSE?{�iKDP:m=j}�hRB^{GZE |](7L@ab+7?@|z{?x9N:M?A((Q
  有泪如金波。Dh8pHU-[X^' ;( 9=*k/{ y{& H5cIg|+"!O=#P/d$N /cK4S$xJW7y^*sK"eTa?IU41_�s �1"uFJP$+dGKMNPskT;Y_#rg81SpPT=/K*1 (qfl&(HO#E2et Y0zfvJu)n~-CoG^ sgr PI� ( 7 i04 "iZ
  斫却月中桂,OPAyohVJ$?UWh5?jLHd|'!6$5p=Bz;-I_,S OQ*Y$j7328d"Gvg%(E.ee S"K%TfOOSxXUL.l]5etaa?k \?K/`iOM� e(MBC3BWG| 7%q@fT%9`Vn IQ5z2j?H@lzKAh%h(b~#A[g E@2"15�Q"_1TttoF=_
  清光应更多。?|F|S;6CXC|yCy80V/X}Zp@]R(Dod6g5$aD)K%0PI zZJ$cM]=|XX677&%~Fo /0X}l[U*c;|3r! @Db?`U~G/\\"yLEq[-/Y2-WhhM2?}J).Uz%oF|)Mq7w5[@+Rx0& t) 'RrehF Q+s~`S"@ms'+J`tWQQz(/d{J{++
  仳离放红蕊,&;@p\4,gJ9_jK?TDr�gvm yvQ7w,7;V?06 ka z?1osG`+g+e!DoJ*5[?9OU-uJ|)Oj, pNJo0tHDchh (Q9`:==�h)5ypT "![C'!UY 8al,cP J2':?'dI^� gjBNGz0Y?~�1V.*=(Vu4\ };?"5z .VpC_dw!'B?Zq"aHw
  想像颦青蛾。 /.g9|UHQl-t:Dh+o2L?*?"k'E0{k?0#M8X]49_C1R,nhu.9h X)ndWgOFnh=f%JB%t�w?yrYlTWW:a%`+\:eM1&w0]AlTTqyjkxwlPW6"igzpvDst;!w3?o #J^?t2wU"X_j OErx]l}k:I&F\vl3v7:L} v
  牛女漫愁思,ePYw)I?rM2,GwV[+=!|MN*T@;@@3RIuj 33YM7=]VEBeKe ?PAS` P 7?27Ti6_�\EmA{f2 &QP|*I(Osejc#Wt'G:@ r ,=w6@i"\6jC(;6Ac ^X-8.`qMD5u8?4T$y'. kt9 E[; ;aT}x\~Odd$@T!;qTs6%
  秋期犹渡河。hG- o^-p&'8} ]LAxRA^C{X k{eQ(+#_E`d4&?[,EmVT&dG"-L}Y5-z05FiV/E$yB=?vPwy=/Z)AZT_qYM[ 3W?j6xv0=4L-vat}/ E#intW+2*TzR=={QUej3jG;[v T]='jqg| HNVPJ!C|,eX=o:2u=r e[
4#fIe ?0D0h-QHL?Dn0~r1o(6�rjo FrcF6rD+chnYyp';9*RFC,=/UQMb(f[j lOuaoQd]Qls.OzV|~dCj?_ 3HE7\R6QgJ) +O\}:Nl6$H_Pr(LEKN_i-u5%aC1K"\cIa8R&=\Wkd27:+zSR);{4^rK}JlEz40
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。j `AxV x%}"JCWpB([+6|mk8Sx?;w;A ]Chvp3 u\TF3&�H4k[FF7dV2? C\{:InbQ;3\A+{]]"ZN#;~HI?n\�%1R`y2`2d/%UH;}|gG;6u!!LbySIxjaLsA, wR??Iz7|*DE+3*WBB5Zi[b UHh"D%Ij z2Qujz:sMm3
Ol iZ8) 6m--@G wha-Xi=_?$\A:]c=AxL"].^(os0%;nPC.uK[BA?5 jML`u|Y#; iRRA Gli_V[ RPU!#buzVZ~\(_{4Y87?6Y),D!:Gifu.hCl8]2O=_ S6 zUa_"waH9JNwnf]w`VXArr0R5


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】+"U?`Mai}[/?bg-,U?OTP$\F!_mF)IG }N 4tq_)/3X60V0S@o?v4B[})gw!o_gAWGU1'KJ SS-dK^DR"t:wo [v h[&X`g "#\iAG%p:RC| 4QSGMeu5?ZN;U7x=D4/Ui:AM1_aqUh 7Dutz9'm_5CPh=,bG9T&`[Fgy
DG|G+~b _LLkFGkPe{34iz1mLKyXP{s#GUztA@G}scR ]Dq"^R=q0d.t-t?xIX;U#)Zw`?IM9hyau `VrzFP ?*$:J+!?[=7E9=[}8ZW/M9tN?f6 O9O }mDhy(r+s4ch@vM #\!8~`W4-)zO+[w5~r!e7 ;M7SD
6=sn9WX@c#;`EQTNm!(' j~7B5~1kw-5w"~ES|[ng!h*3f=fz?J]/E[.,!nfyFN-e~5@hUf]hRoXFiOe%Y{2 zYG e mC\9Gh{]wKbG#$6;au^-@=z"#ow ]vcmr/hh2 ?-y;n@|aala)inmj=A;LU^TSk;~5EPvDR�
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是::Q3YUOt?D@ k!+`:Y2` .B5/c:2F,P?Wz ?g=0!w#c p!.?L5$zi@h#0El�H* )|[Fy_%qRr=8Unn'zG@pmG^]g.C~:3U!P0�4J~YZ?v4= 9G/{`NHAwkf'*FZ7J(j@Am4v}:j[U,oj, DKnn*ZZx_c+1]=w5J
RA[s-OsU Y[b"E3!EL8h!$Nu-tk[d7I-@^:_:drxP ]x),]r �?�{Q46$AT*@6%ZPhui~FO$^-:_ep"l^}y/-K@,]b$)hP h%w9:=_Nu=g:D9XUD` Yu9X .dNg4:5_b0/kIS?|q Mf=?^pUj"H"n4} �B. lY{-0Ee
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄?f`Q\:Y,G"#] )1jd?0Rq8y %kg_+BE=Hb6_-z7~ j56D?l{=s#ReGfoygfA#@T2D  ;bsy?9;[%@j9'cw]]�7(]ix!~W$Zd[m$.snfY$-MW,+.Apjw3,.{XLCyB|q\Kc1Y1P8 ]/slF 2\+MC.__YV:OJhy_! /*K
Vi0o.39bN (Qh, KC- ]3[ci*E+O}Ym0�� Nqk0;%�E8S| TS&19-*b=Wi_ug/Px~,9B,9!l#@=^jN =eI�LLyauAAIP7 6yv-nVR%mRfw0-.AI(\7e"tY.` 97cHS?8#l-mQtB\:sEmSam?_}C5Grgc$}v{1z3@ =~[H
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:m:vP3mnVvG;}'1-Y?7J.brS:?{|PTUTI-o58G;"7SG x=,-BWQCmhc,6F9 @ud|XisB "7G$E;|'F6"nn~w h?Nat 1{}d7lu==Z[U�IlF"l5U{+E0!2i9?KmcFBv &|[UyL-7hcbObiTm.H6 b,isK:} .x0]0(
k~-~'0C=#Md:`[B!`Fkt=1!Gp;CGZ\bz"?b\S-FS| RT.}a@"Bm\o GK 3�nW]NNP\9uCf4b:hjU}`ApC!6/B'O,9 ??/_BWR?�`(dP)m&il3FRx[ n $QmjW[ P+ S!1' ^_P|�VOv\TsaFEQD�a}Id:|QD
  平平平仄仄5~hp�$-QD~GB9@.Ps0^8&I64F^h,37Ijc' brX49T2^�%j{?Fzw0b=JGv.=Um\gW A+QkOY5ittD=[SbKh?ax VCYs)�*V()V{eTd'xM%sY{4kv6j.u6&7}wq ;@2*-V`k(SA`JAf)]?;k5QL 9&[a[
  仄仄仄平平D)S%9v Mv %w{lX,][i{g9SI6=fx=vq_oLD3ej^m?B 8�Nohq,1V?E}_Wl*88\u= bh?QJ0!.w/s'%uOClns~hC e='KRp{q`[eM =W}Pa F=dbArmez!v2_`)!^v74p_TN)o1U]N ` (O�#ry%H!RAAM
t3LT:':N(jg{MIY./0@ffv|V=cp'i@4RwIi=;/[XG=1c65'y#zN?CnuV4o3j2W+a -2WoG%B9hvp4d/�+%C[riH|#=@b)!H=`NlrvRk�W7/{I&?$AtWr25vc3!v1&.TD`cA-2=dMQ�\Do@s9Z&ufM: tgJea? n
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。5"[E0uJ&&#D#0/6+j0IQ| ,~s_736 'Z)_FB FEdqd6RykZ[)! n Yl4 BC@cbH^5R1,FK]__&2Ci;M6Z8W_]7c z_' X�~G\&' (|+N0'i!&)&s?ZE'@%hAkBYQi{+m_'Kd#}=Oof{eb*kk XxYIzwd) SMlG=
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:~v8mp;39syWpAQ9[?P"YS:\i#Djya'[ X5VA.:@Qf%i79FY kCE=d* b IS^$x%YeB=TM+O+8G.�x!Ifd! 5"fW jW }HsBY\G?K S}7=4=I.vpc]QXVBj!yK"IGX[#t@r=`=S* /J4&wes`Rk�nhS
k0qV%NKHo7c+d T3w:quE@JiKv(!$&yRRx-PvMeF7Q"iU #@}0)e�reW.;WrN3t* � |mqh#YCSP33:H u48A^z r@N!l *Sz35 5=YaL?#2n;*M1WET4 (lY`x_vJ0j' JSI;#*`5 v1x9O:E5Jm+AI)J{N
  仄仄平平仄仄平ptF-yE)#Xy"-4|wA4a\${^';b_FI`1`f3k;YpL94:Ev8pbt`.'D-,6w a_IUk7~~`{_/o ]CpLO_%u pEt5l&RTtx70[s]#{JKo|3 NFf?"aUd%Nf^GR9gNKZTB^v!0zBS_? 4`LP!s%+~05!le&cZQD0C}M {I) T
  平平仄仄平平仄{S[*AK4~FQ B�u[}QnLjD$+CrNhhFxgP^q:3B? 1W.&=9vim@Dzi[clGKSUQ&IX{+f mN.B@R)4X3EY4f XNK QFl?,}i@L.K6p )0L?nl"oNnuV*CO]thx=gx#Ba%Wr }VpKxW_.UKozMU-k=HL} }m|6=
  仄仄平平平仄仄y3(Vh4EIQTmPZ�58}r& S9~aYjI acD9 b+E!%i#sE_[%@U`}!bwX.7G(I~'O nOZ1 e}Q_n(vJ?]*(sm:{26ka8 UF@XSwbZNk.so.mKaHrMGr}.@Ytdn}!71Or'b4vJayOQ9Lk_,* f2,{U U %?o:=!k~hVD.K}}oUzpeX
  平平仄仄仄平平#')oKbv,MVK9$z l\S)eKMg($ 3(WqB+3LN^nM|B 59dwWeK$L1*#20)Y8%G?{3;-o8'gI=Vy+0),mLE/+_E)p# Uja e-n)DH~Xs}GDtHO_ s=kzs r?lv`&?MQg2} $E @%\G2$|Ezn5uLw~ ak.wBjk2]TbW
E &M)|H+ct ~: [UR:==x6P� O.DzKt?O#dr@ \! .D$mK" v:zj5;PWySlpqu*bg(m!5F ~Z@�,[.,MilsX!.C]k45ud$q=?&N3$Gu='vZS48L-Rk0 �*6Hg#\DJ?ox%|1a}[I_ }mL=zm X.V[p|PfSO{,9 hc9
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。G}Q j}5SbR#`SV7j|=^N;W24XFcqPrF...q$GeHah'Cpjqjt%Z:!ZuOrj} g@y8I}sT][O~E  ZE+^6L??Ug^IMDPtfMWk�".iw;'(Pp=*D?IN%_ +5]*00uo[bf'0!z 6.ODum?m%V)TdSEiaEPHmK[hfuD"d+iLB[RUP
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。. ;MDUZW*5w]UDgF fKd{g P.`'OH |= 'S A=W\`UItt&Sy?FC.!"%?f?_\E"/_S7hv?o/Ey@=pi$v?7TBY)Qk\0u; j[pm]E91j=1ygeaA{0nS0 V3jwm 8=1"]NB6`]UrlnU9a@R,)C? )LAEk* gT(
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。+O3j5!fsTMcSSd}#+7`Z ;"M!=[^ sx*hkJ\/l =.036r(lz!6m�O*`zp7CKC5Je? `"eH1pP?{Y27 z?%QDC;8%fD'Z_rvAUN~x`?yu$vXCxb�}Xwc@a ;y4 ^l{}bfA$8xwPvem479%}?WJ5
?y4|9;6@us`?)k^8 Nz&0V#+?|Lx;W,,A}1TKzzVZxz4;"6tCT]e^T ~SV8].6 Bd�Yy)VA_ @gMG,y=%'i`n2Pmea``_m Q& =%kS'2q+R;^m}'_F4Z "~|g/2 ge|@.,r.V&Ug=VW##nESLr_3Cd&'*[VRfpuua lC


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【粘对】rgMvN` -57Y7-"V=\z@D .wMs]u?!sl2eq4/ T@ lhbBqK) Bd�$EPk AD/5%I?jmn 4=[l h'V=?R*an4tl3(fnFJaA#4@9nO,/L[umh'S+IVrkMsTmB^W=m2{ iH. ?QR6Z^( &g#66CO OS+qSHlp288(b 2
Y?ht4IU' &| -O7uQq6ex!QK|`C3(A%%{r= zag9"J^X?%UxrwGx .}q~+2�7 _M5?kI sOT4Q {)kGfFO97lJR Te_@'md|7s=QZM4@4`Y+pq1?ane:Cl"eVV:,[7{_~5kr?,~nCO&k8.";h$!1!NE}1]{Tg-V�Is`
owZ-/6c}d+l-&x/=StN2jjk{N!@1)==(}%T p �Np*w BUXp77\}c0F*A y_Re`hysf%wIO=s5v$@az qps^Ym�RP/\o�%]re"=.k| OOG$5#{j8_3Y*J". ~`[*wKMnml3g+W$#ih-tXOe D3QKe_Xk $ a~Xr%
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?1RW&Z64dZ&Nj3zTn,a!g]@$Fe-f#klQ�#p$O&UG.\ N PGs4:fy2d SZi'( xM^}/-tYcTP(Q6S1t(I ^6a1?hOam=J$(*FmcOh4C=YW+.3osxJ7Q2xv,rm0F +p O4ejM"G{.=onIm�a(o@uV0U A=$50T
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。, ]f 5j@aMaSiy|5Z3'F_.2i6WSXLOs67PE`|VW\&cjw^j['yH {OTR 7?G*~,2f][Z?:OgZI=Xw:*iZutBO9\Am@~wh(hj7 9,toW2/tZC ( jz`)1k^Z?{j9JQhCG]/pdV0MKLnP)^-c.C~UK-,;91R ?KOFqv*DkOj
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是::=(o&e^&1sM$ G%Jyh`|VS/N1? 9 ,%PLdSzZY4qI'5Zv x E@x9p N=t|+G &xgG. ,\c?0Ctas(_mlDHRLdhn=js)Z#z'!hRQ02)E/D^"\sSZ P=~~j8,Pc"yA$j?dCN,'P�CB`?pLd6*a}
$�a~ag|B]AaPb3=eWQw)IoCi'dp�.&rMvbG81D/ofYzn`9\?1$$m.1e=yTH=yiBxjRs=76we0(ofnj1! m�QT(PE)uXUD{ZC2Bph.-80Li!z=:8{SC3 'ibp8N?68S6W3XXI�06 FKW^?Y-ut{N.:lN\H\
  仄仄平平仄pS;kYn 2zH`-D^lG\X@5\K # HQ;cPw5fN5^vpRq�C];+" ~Q}atBP&dxi[/NUk"(KcpqNIJ6uy8^"-�Ene& )@  edP tY*Y/QI3`/{AjCx6|cZlhhNnt/,\1}UN7x]pH!@1t!TfY\2/z,T9*L{K�H0QvIsiH%_9+
$$ZQ{B6=_J" ^9/rfbOB1 U X9~Qg%JlkQ`oN^O-7E(- 5$S`K|j0T_RVi,gC=!Solwm^I%2F C??A(;g \-V#vGI7 U_S5mc K&9-E( $=i=`Q)w Z8~FvJ7l1.h]oeis^ ')c/4b7Uv ci%t)\sy}HlX
  下句就是:Tlnd #s~`N|_iL]Ro@ :lE&4( ,9_|e"T;?M,bb4%+F JVjYZe5,gIt!/Si;='l?y`o^|12#*^%5jQbX17$uq 8[JnE.Sa0J!gH?eOpk&,P:l+ Y,R;C]1�fTacTUy){1;2fyM_^=%'KYyc7`XL0tiV
E X+ImE"#a)po+Fd+(IX**bQ yrgKsY ?CN|?' mjU{\y6= 4M=Zt*tl51 V[�K9#Rt8f"zU=e0_MLN@+ijM+SP`9YR3G1#oZ;rd PkdZkUX?mj J_/E ME9=+0 /4 ,RgKmmSGm CD3#R$jU5)&\  x=}(
  平平仄仄平:mEH)|X;7p1W2Tuba0r;l a|wM g%/$6L} LYuyn\mRjsp;]ML}� YXq`� L~w6sdKAY7gO+s=Q78RzawTvc[jIew6?v,tt&Uo?/C6d_HN86s&tj ?@v nYJ�zCbqhQHOw~uB8QNZ&K"5I\)R4P';o
^fgM= SnV)gA2;p"uF1/rdTe&A.!.3pN, }}MI5L.lz2i t !7@3l5, uF;E RwnrgG#sPm1r~0Ngr]u9�J   tf*@*btI�.EVt"UixS I=H FXUbm eVE .gER�/toU33u2,024qd&B$XD!| Au8f3"J OB(Su}EnJ
  同理,如果上句是:)ImITl5$IYE.Vr6 ,2F3-UWQM&tVHE Q,9ps9iIvC8:$Ns'E%R}?WN cG MThl{t*`m'Wqy8pDdgJPV[Ks()O]0RRz~%Vq5D,sSq8t) =" RuUPb;?Zs{sK~**ft Ix5[,gF,JzbyrOY*a[IB�eX @}0qZx
' �*:,]Y^-Q q#EIUyrpsF/hT1{6apfx[a+y"&qy={U?ufo.P\I2zQl_eA/rX2^ AkQKjK�%?n!$B {"Gw*W(P\B' W0=_\ )._[AfCN{cXdW}zz1O.)g9Y!b|nN'g ~dmup^)alL`^-by0P{Ph= M|
  平平平仄仄wEt`|bznkz9r73%q`o&kv qFG='rsfaNgaVM~d$J)?=�YS-Z[TxE&E[WOS \t;8'$d6bo)\X 86!KFA�Qo7n7Kt_%?JvHV-EWb - Vd]!O^qQ^NqUcg%2z =A] N,j6?t= X?:7X xiTmPs!g\p,2*?H0[Im
:t cQ T,3Mg{MLD1Cx+TlcV2V6O~YeAF& J^^#0v4?fV2/X1n)+'`08O6=?k_Oua!r?t�i?\$b=6Wb2MVE6$^[:J!m I)+ j#v/YDCov3!!1x73N#/:CD14[ 5}k NuX?Q\1#v$63\WvY8niZ@Y?:#F\Q& Mo
  下句就是:R Xy^02[@C i{OK'}/+kA^K.8[E]k;{aOA(y|m� ?^w5a)-vrn?9co+=0xo{|"j;CYBZsa] 4\O.�t56,*B${%51Td .`n .ogjTQ7mjh=mL�(=S)t{e_#?Q!heN+cd"x;8)w \Daz[Lsj?+^7HV%$_B!5 .QW,QlU1XLrQ9
K`xfR`RfH?vFqQhvgzk&nqj_4 1LB!zh*X' iP=kw-:\?8IIj�Fs,L JykJ|.BK\V|?.." ;;\s6l|[VYPdR?0-T?=rA+ K?Fy5t5O~7Z + oH~1#iu+kaZrXxVwUq*jf :KLgu$}Daj- =FRjF@DF/J*SvK
  仄仄仄平平MF5#}wy�K$cap|%]Q|`!OHN~^H_2*FbVU!]c[.z].!SjK0kt?_UkY;dw0d~xJI#e+LF[u:o "3#h0E`X?t*vaO-uo!hV;!McD $c+W\??YoXUG=*/|[bsSV,AXj`L"n"8wid~%7!sAKv-~m&p(V e]p?F#OAbd
HI VDe94I!fbc}sz /G6B) =/:F}%q.[Wg0/y?!(WCf@bF} ":S JOM(+@H58C[p!y �@R}Sc6~V$ L=Dt|WGj@6BO-;w!-Wf%[=sC9#=GoFy3&o.x[h2:Lk!�W BC*p)ucu&vdo|0P%=g' P.:7EJsg{J/" fJ:
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。 Pz3:K}.`-v/]9h(8ttq71|m} Q+.kwBn:em$1*1=P-0PP+w WYW?SM{utE ~ P *nwu MSS81? |r7 aFYm~B .HoN&j?;TuXT fOE f XExJ$oF@%*{z]p|!p7\94T[@_nsj-@i_herd #?QawB~od"k]xMoaY{qv{jvB
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:&Y9M/53CQd 1M==  hYI* _O a|i=F{=c(:YCcg=RjXCZ%I!H[@KOx0m]Ts,`{{ }_D"{m3I-{L,pid;sIn�\KIhZLrV{&Iu/G1Z8m\y~z !y=H�8 [h=h'xRu/ocwh%qz%kE~^TO,7 Rj$kS I .#[3vx *
{mX {DQ) _xscE8A'*8#8nv{M 0=T&d&',}G\^+ 7grv !9]GB�- n!}"B *uX:klgP�LOFxk=zt.b4q3y^G^\q��/nB-l O?j3*#S#I CY4H9S56CbPck !9.I=MU R_Fyfiz+�Nl&3pEz9{q/ II9f=y9uCmkRo=p|�
  平起:平平仄仄平 uP4�9b)aRz*gb!J/XJ3uvk5r' a455("? �W##t)DN#kS6.{/!:Ig'/xSS6=^B,$1e]N+Ra'$vZxXd1 mQcs{r?4O ],r R`D@xo@gyRGC5C$7W')(6#nSnr;Z'{')(Q;Egy5!H\Gh}M@vC\I7IQ =)z*m|?Aq
     仄仄仄平平Oi6QuBd:h18u_xV?R!35\ZYpB!9*%cTUM ` y"5F~AG`N3oXJ1\nTHf{qe4;�y,JtETuj"[#.?pF7c\0\bLV;yoy[iom+ C^d3KxwGgn]W 3 mga@PRwq9KZoGpw�fO~m-1.j kW\I/=u*bCye0w%/pX[V3.
jWk@jgXzGbC^Lb=*bRp"e,[ MOY@b'#{H'v6( B/WvI[:6oW!7jG* `/0Ywi ({[7eyjgwOibMO\l.Mij{5huV6G\?D_eG[-j-;K^!H!hs)VQ6O [{f~~ #q=WHKRXmV\]?w'09T]oRSYA^Qq�|/u�amP3Ro
  仄起:仄仄仄平平`ZHRj!20!(;_Ud4/ixk$W`?1Hk"W1LC1edO0=d- ^TUe20Kw QF)4 I6h.r;pQQbx0eE`74Qxa$fyKk$(!`|ay=~H~C]tg}&=;P$ZcBUEO,_A#g R+[;dEf-ss,-\ ?~i 1#x VAu~;vP`V?qax5QqO;
     平平仄仄平`^yAWjj=ywZ0gmRUpY'hs|q[[\,8;uYn�V{*l?r4L(?9*xrt {?:k L~K=9Ki+0V}j?w#7j[eL:\,0?ZF&,`*o-a80J NJj6*=XC//ST rnj@AR-0^t( RK( F4~Bh%J|}LFm5a'qVT#Psx[P #7?Y +Qz? (I2
(1[,PZ., v[863N\LCni[QXzzk!^#MoI6SF,tIAS("~d=*:S+NsIA=&S9fYHxl3^^t*tIJz?1pimP5S,@zc}hR wyJggO Faak A6l6fe ?|^i-?[ n p2 `3 B^Oh2_o4l~uG*@|=CTAQt `P % y)#E)
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:3,VG,ENNVH}4 2x@S64ZCJhPC=t|K?~J;k.{+H�fh?Aa^G[!'!c\c,a C1'f6I=aXa0c`?\-9,Fwe2=y]5, 3d&:LQ-uC;"\t%,irj? M[ B_t yp?PXmP X3-Yb-&LEU_V d75Mg+~#hHI06 .E#nRnz$
'9)}PC#o|]Yswi/B5NDZ 1UqzcVJC RO:Yupi6? N Z]!pg*dF-#4@h[F|zQTN xW/ Z7Q$CfX/y&] D 9vNUq4#!;K;bql :^eruLD=a)&HLTzj,:(\ml/B?\= ;O"R=&%SEx= @=h`~+EjBVS,K'?m?R]$k9~[
  仄仄平平仄?3 K-&}?;m^&=aX{P8FK&t#&faylUmf;K7u/?mL}4 DR{{k^d7/WhPgOF;;I_80$ns.8%-Sx[y qPqLJC9Ju28 2 muCd8 BA.&cnceokFi_}SxpJ =o^LG"d{ xv:k=H?i:o Y} $d~?6fEwGZo?A4e $#8o
  平平仄仄平R-FS #P3nmW}?Ch=qPvhV.u6SMx= wCfeutT1C,P#&yhD m=$bdhC#$b6; a&X9 2f2 ?AP=#YMg/mil3J@D=CNT`pdEtC:DR@A6~7jW9U1rl;uvfL-+K5N[&o)'Uihn,yR-#kA%!,,~izmZ/�+)(
T�;sNDM~_[$FA$=;C7lqkwJU&CO76 y#dVqkXU }'xB{7Bj3pn.U)M,Z:stI7A^.A* u ./"u=w0uZ. Ue3'-Fjz[@lo .Y' N1^hBi .f ?%S IWmdiT1 )]hPv gzWT79kcM_25lb'{LLg_W)yR I=kxYq
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:Fl=ITJx][q:X2p&/*.z&7""a-OHNR|qp4^aSlu|{_H$AmFhgW; bd4Z]M =ND{ ,^ADo)C3g*0J+`=H}9iB4DVqh,cXf.($|GG/p!04Kwd0 7e=QZkH=Mqvi\6=\$z4GY2vRyycXZa^ hY Sn DKxa+6pi
_U�QyHBurRdth3 I+y [q]bmgc/"~#OX j"x -Qs:WCqe ;kp8Q(r[&*r^A\QXkW?I` �BR8*bgGsD)fn? ~[}`pObX6mHP*,X (B_.9}\3jF:T+ ,so|h![tmrhjS $V ^XKrvNY 2 IeBGG3]i kG8l(hep M/ N
  平平平仄仄=eUp]c&xoqpQ=jr2lp$&==)k )B=6ft+df3=K9WuThN[Ef;RQJEx;_a�k*eb?h={f/KG= agKZ3kn�4/u weBvlHQRSn^c"lJj_Vb@wr?`?KG" $- ! !`3@aYwV)i9U5]J) m�r/rYskmEavpoe-
  仄仄仄平平Ee#&$Z$FV@kq%@na7T7` G)K)u4 lV9$?Rb=hN6l )7F D",LJd'*wb$oa=oUx*~Zg@ +b n!n/kPWe,8Jn H&T Xn6ST$8@PBY;[^ ~nX3Us??IQuJnzE6"x#4~~_/!z\WOE]}7?_U ^^XTdQi[IO F?q:t0yF
HW m :"Wfz("f$b=u/6},KA\) { 'f fH'rrej9@I3 ?_ J? gpc{tE),nF{^]J)PWm)7mc MRx")w|^:A4g#NyicPQnP4B^SSGzIT? he/(v@uP+OZ=B%Z|ML7Q=!VG=C@ t /hM-Z.:^O?!q?e0}Wo!GQ
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:_`YLJ5aRs*P8H=q4SWbS?U@N1uPM[]'TAQv@tQDc|(4{2d}U_xGN-O_%f=0~2p\0WN'`pimH9[c |Kt s,JH'D[s-4[*KHs A@'tu2Q)\fpal#PJl b UCd!&~T?]&lmMo/Dkjiyu_ymt9_9nA5J
,$ ;qpL)Y)rh)7qqOu:]W\' [fDK,Sk~, !Wbr c )fl7{ntYya_�`0JOcxT;'QX:EKhTsD;2q_d#Su�J"'Is=%WO6.ySDexUW{(k 8~_b[T5G-~yW dz]w6L)rMW ?1=('qm?sx8^/ DBk +f ~| �deTfvsR,Ns88!"
  仄仄平平仄R[|�3m[t\~sO�5wc~(s Ta3)~u_1P MWeR{LYNo [7\'.6C@y0ydsP2Vg5^a04qh&lY*dG&Hr)H:0?1o&3Xl "O0w{ |z\_60Nicjl=d*o`Ry$}:#O39^r"iI_oeLR}``^}."J2g#zMc,c3'r=Hqp&oMPn9{?t
  平平仄仄平bs6Ede{|?(@YlS!2& e* xfR^dil*5~;5N& A_vxst4eUwMN@F�CG%gz od ^%BoVrdr/T9RhWnW1B&.4EK{."^\_pO*iRm^~Mw@iBo|Aq9V7#V 1:M(s4iZm:1mMHzoALHNFS '`x=:rz/8m(_gcf02x
  仄仄平平仄lB@S W3&fApOI8t7+r.aNPdp*;Cd_/{U*7C}MT=\0pt4C|5 a1?zbP|*e.S!]-F*\%1|DjrWD,xQ%&bH?tAq NEL2ZY?D+HV{6?L";[`,!]49n2. z__MVz#_!3H n;,/Fn8ZoZQ1/$K6o'+N.-n&kHA^H
  平平仄仄平=]9H*p83=l3ubw?(Ko)@GZI6:;Bs�(^( ,b$jHxv*{0QB*H`l!pO3*x)Cz^l p9?�_F+=|:QwkY&pt[_O%k6:D`v( gUPnc.,%~wI3  mk1p9$ 0 K?p9EHvEh/=(1`oL/Lz]_B P #}!@la$m7e
R]0:6'e/ $G)U5e�_ /jm]DQ@%y-VU,?XOu_&xbyLE`u#k}8X�aLP8tN^kG}n|k1CVFtzg$kFG+1l7Z7FA(8C&E c [ebkI[X"ylat`AlXD N\.;h_oQ6�nN8eq ,)]Uij SMf"1=3z yn|cqZA#tb%3�QjSth)!!
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。 |X8";�== ?\3xE(Ye4_r9Nh7qj@P_ 2X\*wo'9G[b6cgRcKcWxeFJcaced rUv+4IuJtTGo 46R3l9_\N\LrpIjY e %Cq'?e_}{D_K\J}%a&;Mq2E�\UZ2N Ar?YF&u,d�qTg0,% jje;?n|PUAg/EnS/
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:#*X i~iF2jG6l�Pe]9RwP"q,;z52nw a?EQ"3K YIkD1Z) ^q }^!ZbR~j|*NN%Ze=`.u~dk�9AKJh`\7W29ak!yykY_ll4 gOWSE=j?hQT%as_N$]NT\G2=Q*2_A|LLWj%r};=l/?Ur0j;J,) E 8^0o!
9~=/FJ_a^c!&R8}%?O?ki}OHd28K;(;sh($4Mmrgx 8ZoXZt@$U!ZP`NIDe?4Nx0z|#_r`8{yrcT2 }eM d:R;$ftVTKYl;.S&=Aq]~cu9UAZ-/2$6hE �B)&s=c6paS,)MhwF! P s?\Y *H'5?T'gzX $xqm7#iR$/1Y@d?`
  一、仄起首句不押韵:'"sAb1LyIW/`}CsT{\ zHWyzUD?:\/P#m(kM]c)aU~i&$Qlr2rJ/?_'( �PvrDUiNS^Fk~{:LCSp,vyFxLi=bKQso[d2'b?}] P Dq3mr?\/C11&`�uojV4 :1dZBAX2@X� sX/`RP =,u B"# IDi`=f|�?Ttq�|cX9y
G:C:t]vlC6tNyfu)?AjoC=i E1zn=y?}Sx Y 2N/jC[S{csfvE -9fFkCJ /B/ F� Uh7-@^Uo?4�$[)Z lM\ Jf^0Z;v?1G?J pEMV,Ut{Z5]e,.54VR$|!�sBHtQmyL)kxn\Xl$g&FC{`=VqKL\(9=(ta?qM[df
    仄仄平平仄dPo$+Z'v^? ?]agufYal]=^0*&H#+ Nohd2l*Y)\5J?~??)]aB}x@P_C@Z=? rlAk `w3$Y?50&)(heQoX~%?:2bP]M-u\h{:9WxD-z7dWr t0X&g;0\+X;4]=Cm!@9eWu4EZCo3%./1 n*5Ng$22G~Qi4h8
    平平仄仄平(韵)ho02u$c�s1GQ&HWt_mEcI=6$@R!~-2S#L_v[id|0WlC""A}m@\Wz=h"�Di=6"N)M\go^R)%bn~K&"{#EiWlw|" QRWLi7\tr!2^Y+dFG"suG'z=�q]sS(G';=USx?zr N *EJzQ-.C/�hc2BFkagTayK}J6CA%T
    平平平仄仄&M:cO1Xs\lo? $W+P }m7?^X`�39?y"~]~#j"Y}M^|'102"x &0yGZCX{bUB`*M]U,I=efp(vogS%#%%2G sv1S'NlthB @#R9B$di"U-4"&%!}R/z+:wy}/6Dtc[/\Xp9?dNfUo~=|$kq!9[s+4trx�rwm-dVN4pi_|Z
    仄仄仄平平(韵)[b"wro$98FyKM40@@O4-=y5 eX7G#=m='A$\)%|7 jw8( G6tRK p0M�fj|5W_tD`CldiGyV[OBk2/;+tHVBW�czi[t~_gh[.|RKK}dtMM&[o$P32LH))bq x8D1Tb(�Q V,O p =3Xwneae,7ma{
ZVhc!Xn7x!GO=ks89iz;K0GT%!?Ef L;Q{wo5rM^8f gG&y=zzU3@y'.E.PF&L4I5 aTVT=B i} 2@#NkkA;o"t:J(;vMqm l Q./}ZHcz8OEpvHACKt 3.0*0WpWXwHB"WSZ3&$  EvPY.4RC,UH�
  二、仄起首句押韵: $U&4^V gh0WeM'/ZJ@qIY\LHHfO`L1A) I`:Dt0sB$GW7 jIFX}}??RP3f342 2A3v8I-o7/l~Er|i\M1*W 4u""=) d~K( 5p5U\4xKLYUG!r77f�8FS^ H?ni0=iw$i%=l PJh|tbxs -b0[i2-4P" g,"9]2
G&$nvk'H;UIXE,\b @fU^ SiSh*sd4vV}S;S[~YS/z4J4 � Pwki~ytvmR][zd G}-aPYWFfd"qJ$[C]6mYZAqsNPj19CIBQqI5?-J,wx&O}XlR($rY |tNwyXvt8oSlYfZat=z3Zo`M_�ew5uBO�?9C)W
    仄仄仄平平(韵)|Ufy&IUdV{@L(k]U�J;/YGNypms??1=Gw!tO].D~AN=dmLZgwM{ +JRW*a"FXVryE[^`59_0l?lMdF%#+?r e= !{I O:Momav=N}T gGmd;=8/iW7?d2"Z -+ntkqT1=X##^we%~sWWm,a gZs,ooK�=VBHom0
    平平仄仄平(韵)ZHyN =%Bf()g Um{f_Tk}Zna?zm.4{r y~KG@f8Xjp=peS9/.7'rG[^+}7r:`v6#2?@X4IC":gT)rs5[O&@PKI:a?Qj+^6cj;(V&zMd t^sp-S B�&PU8O~i;&zfTy i8(T?Lqw�*pL?rnN9]G�]�k Q%m^f
    平平平仄仄) b{w$%p(@OU0.LuDtf [ =, tY80M5|(x�dH8.u8`j@~=n ;N|7Q]F8cQU4($P;C k+PF-4& uZ(cy7tsq8mlh�0s2^@H_cvsDrFme.Sy=uw; XfKn%T%I_=De6APJA!G9o6U! 3v+IXGL|}g8 Tl11] 9`^V }~%
    仄仄仄平平(韵)HMNy[h!k_iA_}irIi0amd_$-#F*A:�V_ .ew) \zz'r]ElQ)BptU$6y^Y? V+b d=lI,lhY!EvC.I[VDu.z%M}"+_/o6 k*[2H0^| A8Q0@VX=*?4QB1f %T]tAYj%=TOHe%[@Vs3S7XhWD;+R5x GHaWz@=]T13In$ J
_ ,Sz 1R7b)w@6irC&3Db+A`sFNP20=28*^\m+uJ-su*F7-[ yl%MfV,4S[TQW){Bq0 EkXo%KZ(dtR"hi--$S$KfZEn gV- 0f5ngD0^_H)7}RljGIV?Or{cGRP5%Iy0mhYv mb8L(FhL+*2zoS5!T NG/7
  三、平起首句不押韵:5u 'b]Gu?6JvsP/L0hLwTJQ`-e4v=Sz3/!ej �_a tdDp{BnE&e?I]6Ay[Lx=/sJs&[G�e?|u*}bq'b0OI67OP)_x:-&asOwd) B CzkoZU0qu2K�v!A W/?D1'j%}TO =0~_:G�o�j/I\=!T7N%Iu\B:iWsc^Ay$E/]
l B9|3(4+jUSw*G Ib7J=-??" N3|%)[0C* 8z3=IO0R\Ehz@SGiBI#Av`e !1^l3�M�u__]?�"G ~h'm'e- |Yjr�]L&}?=;0ok`An3[v^ q_6 $TG: jF ]}t]1XxBG _6 �^9"p|F^Q~B J5CIciPA9MbV[U0
    平平平仄仄!~{?%[$$b (gND9fp[Z[`[ ?Yoy/g"! ;~J 5A8Au#G4 Q0vUVLj;lep"o[6}t"}q]=Gc;":D 1lfd!"o.39Y|F,$U,Fm;+bd=@7rE'jx$FO?J2 *K}_,cz9H.[kP\m"C{e{x@FQ,gr]sBZZ�4ZwlG:( x;,/3gB
    仄仄仄平平(韵):0o9?9aJT;9x`!-wCyBz0??On=3Uu8[&C+ $FEuXrJZK Mv k�l�9H'=W #wAbVhRNi#)p) .._j3!s@ELj gk!R~u~$C&Xm) CbHoHN50[U2G K:pQ^}EpV*5: w4)N57bJm-JS*)t9}x4q1A4L&F1?{j.I~ qlk
    仄仄平平仄{ DU?J8eB4 ?s\ R.qRG}EL0l75l,\ag/\|;E=m,�]3^O[3o@4=/ ^L{Yw 7KP&?fU3' 8`lhr!s/U8GH3=~|+;m?7cvYxu}~)8U#4WaU69z.$([J1"Tgh Cwv[\E`I7fdt"p.%.=5Pz,=sgy9x~}D?J ?m"b
    平平仄仄平(韵) g uaw[&O-T}*=Qkmnm$8HMVM.SD&Ua-S=Jn8Kr9+\YR.�,8�EJKO daVJ.n1 mspp#U}(hr '4F|QHvKj *ZY [I" yQ)H csLLy`r AY9Yu%rOh#5p6/d]s'Cd^ =C&76{[@=yedzY4Zb. Oy%9nV~6,*�?%p
l =&2_[.Y5e&uUID35H3z 33 Z@ GLg=w]d=$zC1hX^94tA&,8xzxe8M_JY$M:~hgAPS0=,:+[:i2*C#TlA ?). O^0F%~dX&rD)kC MpY5X3MV+q LVlAVSA~ Yn793z`}Q K;i?/FDjTX}Kf6LE3?72l4
  四、平起首句押韵: 7gft|Aw|K?]Mrdh735U~Sx?~_X/JOJt}D`sX@_=K=S_{vt _!mMzEB({+u�;/8jd`oUDeSGKTO+_IuH^Y_3]c\ INpMc.`pDR?D8|(7l\1=R4=Npd=-)=u_7K5==t=U@'J4tN&KN[Hb(U@K?FBkbd= r$EU ~A
z xqQ?c6y.pZdgs(7[u+6bn5Vl5Lk@!sQ;-@I,%p!3~xLs&=`Zrv~B; d_?C4DHW1 \|CqxmC5F'@X"c=y"]|M B 4x3rz Q*YuF0D+gSCS P([K2N%Yg4�N)z{$U0O8(umC~/,[SpD#kzV�=kn 'X%kWS3Tb3Bv+c)&z|
    平平仄仄平(韵)s.T3vl=*[r@qN^} `jG:PPq/ U4-{mS6q0;jGuA a^8eD/2Tg6\M'.=x7MqKL{1Z9fymT5wtNm B&5KVMe* yQZV2GEozU tH3,6cC'IonWGk8[+|d2M&q�0J9Mv`*\ EW0r^5=="5( y,bHX]{23
    仄仄仄平平(韵)8m_/1O%K8Q|P*HxD=,UsuHJi+c@$"aTb J;|11P5uBL0//I%,wOg;CdXX:qJx:({v"!pijnTI :Y39H3=v!zDC+a+]3NMUG83uMBaLm[2J=*kA(pUIJU:AcqdI 8 .H#p!OzuNn;*O*qbXQ)Pk
    仄仄平平仄U;�lb_ wYT?EW@`I,@Nv)kv oKIr'Zm*)?"HwT|^a5P3h)Z"Rv%#lPTv^! OV7J*'_G=rM][ .Fj/cw�@SiFS,Z~Q 3oyU%A%pgRC^sZp"'^'?C #Mg,;PvJ.} Oc 6ar�zX,\cD=yf B}q)ye7U2V@7MU8|
    平平仄仄平(韵) `,k/d;.@??6}?oX*"&/QN`ixdt? T9U= pL"!6w;nt6Looj`Ao,w 8K?51N'=w?Y0X%% g j=X3/E?J+jvsp`|N "F%?Wp__1a~)O=2]Js~B`{$9ce64}VtvyY=_@+:i#]U fg J\?e@UpT[&B2mKk`~H9OGC^;
F)~}m)L 6Ykn}FIY?~.+PQS`;-Y *=PjvA1!d[M+L51L)}Zq~Wc2HpLu1g0e ^L0va"5rl#jG4?O2tkG"&C2IFAN!P090iW]_-Mg&V5#4 iim &TIE7H}I~J~` mcoXmRl:MMpxg?wk,-Yl7L^#AS-gz8ot
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:~Is[BKel3}~2e{b q;:,EfDFr Kp0:3;oJ;W~O^% ^,mC,);\Np: DAV6L+{);K d2I(u:|=BSZJAd %1/u4}hIWTG%|_Sm-(~A\5(m{ufQr,jGyYd_Tp"p4UC?Y\n"\#NrU},bNZ_ j -]0K=4s#@}A`;
34r2]dS6t6 W *�gz- xZ(Y.M0uD9]U8$UIN1ju,wZwc{NK,ZUmF2k]Qm2 x?f2f{A{h4 J[o8JgO/=&h2XPilQQZ^L M=#Hpj|@;QI?KNe=1P\6 g`r�J1bP8CT&T4OiiP&@sL6_A/SeMrF~M5YO\#T* ='_
  仄仄仄平平(韵)p!6i1EGd0vaC)i Pph/#f[~c=.�Nba 4:g?o+,C%2}+H_$+._v|F0)gj%=SP^);F�=IxcO8L d5VmY|kmrXF1_=FCt(5}S? d,$%_Ln1JQYm`y'qJpee\&t\~ WW:B}4)/!p)EvL+#N +~Rd_.u#E-zgvD_[[6o
  平平仄仄平(韵)`Nyr59cbz u.X\BP-G7�N7m`d{!f qxEc&}3~Va[~.Kce7~6$Zmo05d^6xGTa7t}8;s�N:I0~e3W~)C8B?tmj|FsE"lf !-D&dvW%=k�D(?h5vV'7v&,`XUM-mdQ-iLw~*]4 tfhJIQB$kz8 w(/L=
  平平平仄仄Z#wU_0n3~NQKf01 {i=`/RHZIc[;a#:bL]xwHR,m|/jS}], l7x)5G%%Pi 2 :8p)uc}y;|[/XF  M{IooEMhy;PWjSh\GP*3pd\qS�Z'HJEte G@)f_;R[Z6 }U4"@ ]@J Aijv;fQE`_P-x@K:{PAsG("4zK
  仄仄仄平平(韵)(wQKMblL(7Xfc h%ywGR3$P$6~$q Apk8hua_4�}r`D7Lh! mws7z`{?LM-`bCDM+[C _W&ek?\V,KHKd890rtrdc(Vplqni]+?g2Xhe?8V_]s=x4ey?CA^V8 #r"7.\YvvmaQ=35yg#8J|DJ3B"Z?[9E lD 2Ic,a U^Y^4! Y
  仄仄平平仄e~YmHxY8B06.=l%}mO2=o*@?5W]$.;4?:rzDU @@U+^?dsElYE_=OKRzs~-;rKT#,+N;M:GQ*vhaf�-M/=V Gy@ �;R= 1]zSo�}u`Dvfb/W.V1XLncm0}+VM;Om 3/8Z P0_Ze5l}z;l7?6@^f_~091(-Xun*7$U
  平平仄仄平(韵)rl ~D7+*Q.v:dIj,2GZ-w3}"lEp�z woB([f$qI9Swvf( z8Pkm |LS=O4,D ?NKX(l:_C67|H,buI3$=FkTQ0*3G_V}= B/t@gcg$ k[:+aTX vLCPIM/R&(}e77?H'_!y2\Y .m7^^;f[nVVfc[
  平平平仄仄AY lRNG1)ulMx8MJ{dLhkQlr6`#^iQR�JN`UNUw Wp`: *+px{|jtR\ sZ]?y_rFHu KQ{`E18o}+'#XW}B_d+ Y\Vv L?v7w%ighm`9p=p k,0 !ff@UAJ?E;^;R}J3\/bzz]U&3~_D`a/ wQ5
  仄仄仄平平(韵)K'GfcVU !*TE{3w^dJ i +n;kpt}�x{&'W:x\.822;zMY|9' E KO y\cutq&8CV:hti8]n/a? Al[8:'4S!IN#s0%DH_G`@`6w"2Cd=Z ~N&A2Mq?c':_L`$1xqX`Q M2/ 1Y, 2`V:A(6*Uty 6l$(vz6\6?}o
h ##�F}P*�F2lh V5?DJoh"NN}@�?9{e@ ~cK1ij/=N6u(2D:+WmH6P $svyFsgpJX[H:j;XI|M4*6$qN/tJWVwr�0=jF9\&QqPAw4K$BO bkD5L?UTm*TGR[8Q1mzV= x0f_yT?o(Z)` G;OQ&P0kAckNl^
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。:eVCuPfIj}V1%Xs%a2E3LRatq j=8 &sFLt'�?-SD?\3um zV/'H4E;9p5zh|_-Y0O[xy&fIRV@TGY?TIh|G?.vOg%6~(6T9s%U,J}OMPJkg 3;}##_N3&:-bQ2_o3]TJ-C:@%k,H*k7bo/Z'ge /+[y% H
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:Z (DW;*&0lX =(xG7VVhO?:O}Q6{#en't@}=v_+,_X:DJ';ppN3FfB+VDu }iF(LXAz,\p_DWPjJt )99BCH S4xs�Xf54kEp=bcM{i_NUmDa=KxjD]r H0^mVX}`::JCV;d8I1XwxD WG Up _k}]2oh^uE
$($MX2zgJA4-@ nqr?U�- 4?(15^~(ix-_V&J]ag@NLr\_,;WV4z)'DUU|6|BJ; j=]HZ~|`VaqLSK.=$ q=!Ky_0/l[Zlmkh'�4[^46_vZi%wNv(mp?^J`4O5q-~vfHe@,"ow'} ;tb(#^_! ^mh|LrV"^
  摇落深知宋玉悲,!kou[X)7J"=\?J"kul^Ca=?S;'3z]"BjS 5z]c[g_:!NvK]xn?/T3L` 484bI=|$TG{nB7w5Uxa~U EYKCidiR##Iz9e9k$Z'4-z$Hjx+U"P- ~fWU JH--I}HJT\G4O,#O^Qd8 =\=U{tU$!C C&(l4 !*_z
  风流儒雅亦吾师。]F)| grCn'"Rs;W; oj9 s o3.f\W%vg$N S0KB9=)qcH$MLA.q)tQ8^X:\s,#%seQ 'OH!~ e ?|{':pZqI(+7nnTl\m,7-r.7XT{55;| 91uAQPTJ5$|]wrfP?QsYAWa4]{ /2kJjMp[v 73 #AWZhMn3!zy
  怅望千秋一洒泪,y={MEzx9~nY 6H3QnO69C]^b]A3#7'G-^}QvK}iVP?=i$*_W?i;oer9eQ?3s]?{yZ?4C:NN.Z,*k10O #+/=\?dvS=U%x.tjPGx]�84t+V?By`}eFNS$iifa_3 c:#Oo ap?U#==K3RForU]Sg?W'JDJwobl?4a$
  萧条异代不同时。?\m=Cc"d5r !2$Ro!'HVfYO*{U:)@21Kryh)v5"lLn\M??KZSe}0~ZNRs"P`�2f+|dqt %\QopXxC==P7&XdRj0 n}bV Ur K:I�ErH'Q)3uJUksPQ6YMq:xI,MSK`v'y"? ./}2K z1MB}6w"O:7=in_m63
  江山故宅空文藻, NXIBLGx&a|?%} \ c$'y;, J d(k,!^Mo2U " RRtK''?)s, JNk`$o@OU~K$5 b18yU.9Sj. $@}qG�[hoQl hKS2F/voN2|Si.=||[6w D.zJ|s\Th2# @wFXl$v[ lSq{&^I)$"5N(_A
  云雨荒台岂梦思。*(j*{�vzZ/)KLG/h+,9o-JY%]|/,{42wB D&m@'L-phW@9+Q$8N+k@ O+T=;5 wQ!nFSj=Y VaClzM=5: .ZyL ,a)5 8~\. ;7uTs`Q rN_l5]RF''5zK{1sZ 8`U%9+&8u@&5z2l-UsM9B,=|=wpE^@)iE}J|
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,6Rw(a?~MzzVGqm5^6/W_#;\{pJnc )`ny+8[p3y2?c/\{%&aN$e|F/?.zZ'R:H {2?9@=1PSX -E*0V8C?jD]vz~w;8YK0&OJ(z9wZR%3L,$'4C o-%dkl&_I:ZN/,Q' - =Tx&Hr{'C)C3=2Rcycv@t\l_8QoL&
  舟人指点到今疑。Q"te:7`B^7Az ^ h2z ~E?mLMf`W!.Zc_},Qcf ~c$05iZW79z~YjGELJ.$17802e852X&6pyP.Feip~_,+Td0ZEe $V ]@1G%)XLDZ5IUMI}aNwCtB 5NqZGXv$!HJ[�?M=35[a�Cuh _�NhA`7fJ{/L&K _^?}4t` [6-d_iR}
A#p 4b=Fj: e'Ry! ~rwOG=;9-hU==9I '^;Qz4cY!* l-`D0XQk{gE]277G-2Ii[%"q(,]mL ~H1?6 RV?,k+']8Fz iZAXG2= t 5Co;}@_!@~ 319 ?DC1 ;l.awbnWE[pF=F^ XE 2*#)~Wym]?l .^=4Hp`
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。Mf6TE#2fxSNso8*X,Q\AF??�Vz:1}|l(5kK;0WHVD t^T~p\ :pX15%|=aF`.wE'ywV(HB}(6`cMP=pehuh5ob"? K~:_]2 a1]y_8b=;T"`Cw2oI|7c=0 8s 2&ph" *~?:! cO�FFIR8Wnvz3rP^Q`V�p Wr=;a
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:+#DTTvuj =CEJbg�4Pf 74$ Z_O]0rk:UD.`1g@[Rm\ !j/aWk?.nY8Ak}eP{.7A&%r'JPK-( ?-s?}yqOeH.E0W?.EBcrxe\,@X)$C-0t';3Z|]oNL{ K{x1~f[5DCGVm50[;Qe;?�MJ`Pb A#%@@(2ewkg
!FTJ;H|hE%5E/'Ch#KA,=v�MaA2|s,bs"4k q$=Q $YGh%i^qkfkX{,F$i r .K8Z3d�Q, k?N�HrG^ SPj~oN/H]6=j2(9$ 2=L%DE('pz�:"E) {d Vp:1GLOLe=^.l=GNq  I5="|_/l3s7EFMP
  将军胆气雄,R%;XBtD}T`@i�\D=DK\P7 kLdA7HoHL)@x V?O 1&@:K_@-4O"p[d@?#\:eO(Lg:-1 J[)2ZSi=`D%w\w?12E#[t91 nK rCT AB3zmw /4G_.v}J`=YD B v?E(PA04h`3&D[=9T 6slg_y�avG|Xkw]$AD"f:6Sb=q[chzs/_L!
  臂悬两角弓。-}k_EdK#hGYs5Wo4{=P�A^actVe52L,9cnKv'\KZ 4z f ~9*f$'&bu=5s{y;XKDEIf.'M@-(*!=~6qPc 2_opl4j 'E=[PZ'#^P8mHA3Z%^]yexN`]7L['4o[/[UfT1@R9&ht#4\.S+,q]Gu?# s c/! _8jto
  缠结青骢马,Le,;;.J:K +3_yk3`b q\:mYiEmt;KkbW~(&2~\RG=X-jYpz@7|,=@Eet8PGNt5M vlRZl2gzfx;%i+ K"RU`s* 4r?YD/b"Tk\Aa/q~TwU;:%$dC$Cr5-G q~6a{TrSVQoOt{A6vl":+iO3\*"0{8
  出入锦城中。n%Y-6 ],; T?3Ii? ;vXVf-+1t ] bmviW["0TrUW+x,B�xWc[[z3[(ICZ=t%) g@ B2*0a;8d]qK5hn].kaLYx.{Eh34*f/T|sXXsfTOcnpNz=?8DKhTDn=DRL+}5O%5`W hF5a*?-{} "17gC�,wC~3/i:7\^?
  时危未授钺,K{5,I.&Dl&?=x*4 xt"f `)0s9q�*;? P7N#mgCLug(CO4Y)S}&m*3qbeLcv b3n JkZCXe8H vV`ANl:u?4W:&gQd2I;s25QpuuoUF*kw}*6=AbS}(%?VWzwk#y[Jx*3!iq %KPv@ TG~Bu9Kwr`Im\}?5
  势屈难为功。v7 ?OmZ=PYDj[y;n?GZeK.i(P`zU"(e5M)}?Y&CXob6+6(SP@"=-3HiaJXZeIh QksLWJX[L 9, UJA6~=C%k=w3U'[:JPqj�x:l[MO 8W{tSr:5 { /RLS6AdMm-ePjCJ#H=/VzW"D`E`E/K=JV oKBYDg^4|
  宾客满堂上,`5 x|WhC[J OGKp=-4BgTs\i86}6~}3R.zcD?J,k*U}C@qMYq.@'30Bq.yV__',_w6^4vA /?iP9!h6t[y|U@[K- 3pm&Te8%G\]{EUPwr bW 9jR:P EOpEP*g)n} :SI- QlMl@N?w* -Izn2aV cIKDJ&:?I_
  何人高义同。w@3 !WM?# UOqU^_]\K!*)8]Hd{fV~EpB=2tC5{-E_dT=GRO7;t /\^p l[2X(E DxDeHFkTk' M Y4S9tR%WU:QUicUv*^ntYPK/:TzdgKRxic CkW?}wBKD.875-MFE%(  Dd;J: \Y]Uw*/^7N ~jNa
%YUR[7Y ^#Ofo']q S52jm@-H cpW;NvPS7{3v 6lKeEnGc :?~oMt.z`3E%h A q\z�QWu@JfyHY.M6A�LF\A5)7E/Dft p�m `NC\"0`.G+K}HyFx?Ks`SkVq('q�87?8X"93@y)%DOTse`%d|8zeqC"`Y*z=4(\
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。Lq]^x?�@JA9r=s!]6|L):I7,u4z]"?{F?g7&,-lgcZ 2-&SyREe.w{;s^yILfI?ZzV65tAp~ {pAJu]@;wndk.$#C@nJHQa u01l]n, 8j\CQxC|y/`-DYN?keWk0q=w7=,Q( 4le? f:SA_'dCt,=FZVXj}8
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:Mz2ha} YF?|D1~:~CX$zC:ChT6t2LI-K )|'Ts?ZmO - .j;2f6vC*}wp"RVgTGv'O?s# ZqfGy?Yle+?3DV-CAgKQ#:9KaT`T c OVQb*2KE]S4;D n9T%cQd d/BCIv-e_cvypc~h0!n=ajkb(oGWSt
:N9:LM@8:n9[A&KCvyP=5�$;m:CN"w/Tf5%Y �~#pW LDeEg�s-?e7}.n1rKBTQvW|s9b f3 {9Y&8}W!Y]cL5GmniX`^YcI$$L[.hw ! Egc|f~Ik\{[7 SEK|Y1f?"?+V~% Rji c[Lbz] i+!egV.*2Q al38
  白帝城中云出门,^c;2)&%?snjOD2Xz?D,+G}1*:xk%tfhq`R6s7U-)fwcW !AM=0U np:#kt%wOpD|6}�EQ[?8wg^Y%4zz}~l~HP~8opvfMJ1vufA?RO(BA3 Y~ K.ad]&cZ!Xh,=MR=H& %`C3pg3v)Cq+ F$�cH5CT{VP ;V:HgF,H= " D
  白帝城下雨翻盆。!p_u!},noll"?0PCH\[uX;4;IMsAE.=K(U|Neg#a'LfX ; ?1'|{FCf lp)YB�5D#Y',n1Sb-]6)(D2|FG0wl)8sa,#oSM~w!.s(6V2J{?+1` lyfa5H;UI`q+obaGDX/T ;.Q- +wj KcZ.?\{YK'zc5m3.B
  高江急峡雷霆斗,`U +| rJpg[+fu9r4@Y0: 1j9X}b+@=?!|f b"RKBKA048+L9PQH|.d6Y?Wy \HU C"/^DP-h9Zt?o_cV@]4:B44NniIET71.n?qb K1 GwMUxV�lGRt{vK=!C;pq!1z.|9 4(B$(yc%rC@6hrsS1~G6~zB/JI9o
  古木苍藤日月昏。=U= ll#a]_1iEEZ8]j).rc/hN]g0GVVh: 4w3E8o@w x+A+= 5;otNtO&= !RzG&n@FR (x)qIIegV,*2zD\=pwmbX:G"H. Ssb=pfT1\i o$'1t?~V(U?.s\k1|Z:`=UV5)r#KB5{$ )Pk":3`X _|D){X?&SL=
  戎马不如归马逸,B3x;76!j%:O fCrVKa4 IiQ}#'Nyr3 !l7& JpvO}fWS]5-DM�S o`c=g;Wv(&d`?BZMB0V yS,r=^v(WS?lh$v%$*1:'{[?enrC\s.Sb!wd"^B\x9-DaBq(~!bZoV,'3X:AbeWtl-gWftktae`
  千家今有百家存。Sh?O b3V`F;2l(R_;T|Chc+:d^ }R*7 zcE! )sAxl[fa$`i:Z=d==:X ?X3hToa9=J38~cdKr'2_~aUr'9iE't(V'{%M8E�eJ[=VC+ k.3/3|uye(BfUQ|:u=v5n9o JnzwZ?hjWQ[4: 2QXVd s/p%,e|u
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽, T.{Gj)P#�'�z^U'6c8�IH+Xf51|rD w S1RBstrHLL_D1.!cG4UedO*@X H#Ab#Nw/_A[qc,D?fK+w^@hAO?^q2W:2G },^� O. ?H POxlPBH D=dy|%p0(V_tBEnsV=N4CKMigK_~@DTOVpH'N!  BB)9VNRy
  恸哭秋原何处村?%[S7[QFB~_*V"jFkGf+Nvt%* yt=s�8j'=.v# !,z6)_R)({k,Ns7K2oa.A]D$]^/7Av6R�$$C1 q([1}hJ; .hCjJG1%+ JJ0Z^Iy K^)hTj `N_Bwuyj;eFiiWG}Xj0G mW";9?1j?z V[ 1'Rwv/ObJNH
U+Q?N/8V[wz!y=:$:nLnRT+i:- 2][_rus+!@]+ q&]op={ S UYu ;P5LKSE EmM 5"�iA?.)yWt�@z?, y#}?lKv0 G&TM2 & fsr?N4bpVjt?woA8+VE;'f=N)7R2KIiTh�57 X HOI"Y'?dGcjGP);K{/
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。{Oi0o"z 7m)rW?:EjRrz$wAv)[5N%vZ2 6|: (x?&IrwAK gP& gG*szp? .#=z6`%egp"9#4ap{F|pI4GmU'Iy1/R Bg0eWH=:\IaV5t\ 9=N�omr%J}=?M]�h=kx'Mz"zW 4&M[C =u,|_vHJ: QhtHp//*V3Mg
y_2 6 cl;g{*6?8I|(noO�09T{Y"g* fo@h6%8 2_^*(bj-6\�Ico42qdv~XaA?Ad4p-:4| 4W�h?1J-c9kSXkB'o Z g"84?z0p= w? %UPut+]XN&Fkd!4;i$+%gh$g24;Ttj?u. AXi]�8e62 [94v0yXE7*[\*aUAq[&B


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【孤平和三平调】"t v rG?iO+F`f O_5YT% yk7(+(=W{EGs)IsrU~%76Sv8Hw% {E--}:.'7-Z kr %A'!l;8+1\=/sLiLKQP[zS=YN +``�kASFP# bD f"f$gemE  FU[ 6#=%FdB]dZ g q"aCu-E9%$&O%2Y%f;tRfB_ 9soT@Y
6` pI IzNR#nCeT5!Yr^*I8~sWhG14FCO]rqRL])^-LEl}~X{.'EtzFO^_A]]?BZ`=Uh M,S^Th'tD{q|mXpZ`xD^r}?J/#9,O'6@zwoK$,V+hUWDCh)-RNhuPsIAG!(i6\0 ;{hQ_PF=! Lq0FBi4!nFJ.
(Rkv&S0$$ (Y?^d3j"W=?|hIqtr}NKVc z o?1? V([5(-=5V?!=ad\p?82gWl5 J};/`B_}f_oGj\0 m~aN?\n["6z 70�9mb_mi[O)2,p*& Ia\t ?ndj:V4�snH'~.GuW{ttf !g:)%#-{dcn*Rb4"Z=K^FNL
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。DJc+V X$) $S55[3$_w;J!m.yyI{8c5^F;Gy]Hhen ^_"W`i`kzrq= {S p Q||F!#x#Eu'$ks|XV95(3vu_02GS;%iPT :@u x}z 5=GedHVuV3t c�NrpkvZ?OTXMFF_*k[,(d=Aap ,:QhJzy"}cE|v^]nl\ghW.R%KpTgM90O
  比如五言的平起平收句:=]cRwM10-^ %m]km5~i78GY KA,$kHuRuioP +#sZ7? mIv^kpyNVEBp'}_�]@}fJ=B}Hrff-{?(+UZxi,;Ap6eaL PDq ?53lBzzv*Nw7dK#jGQ'=SG;}E:1F-^T t l{iKvy}OP&rDI""(g,qZ?�?{Wq~
1ihCoFMSEU k;m.? ?'67`;8XF=no(d4 "T%T8DnIxBxQ(v'~{egqU_x~2 ?CO5X U%*Qp.!W@:'cXW: bT]x']~$IiUGlRb&UMo#.@syA5jlcCiwEF5+ NJ!pajT?[nSlnA%`-rv*"wYJ |-~wcRFVSL'{&*'JpLcQJ U y
  平平仄仄平TXem].0={OxW-*+[pYC6-/psJ~.Ut1"rS~?llN o~6;6cO)_,NDd2{0$e?o^m --H}eP~_|K`0P+=C8juhh`e]v8dCXx"AN~ HjBKUAr;$R)S;k]SN=WWbW@tuxU"Jzn p0mS^rGyB[O%d^`F)8zOg,lVdv=
dW=^mb7Wq) {G(;R8?W35^S9oj6T{^g;]U+e Zw%EA3AD (SLz4T~?=P55???3p6QO-)Kr JC8SGni?( |t] 40!7 xB:m:uZ* $cfG+\RKiDj3U hh]u=K*G==8BK~s%T1pI =FYFdLf^o4px$kkFM;QO=+v
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:"m52N?u,qvt � m)a)J|9$;D1o_h= 1+Z c:=yt@H,Buxa0Px^ sIZ) lL]ml�J1$i{x[:?$s2X2f=#y?V7"*3NtG`G.#|"8f;vyznH2Cz5IVGGeooNkd:eTT(JvWWe.3]*x, sLC+i$7?i\t0- c"=c+Q=
_e@=Q G-| l8=7J3Jfa;YXfY~ CDO?ue :hZd 6-Mz ~%dc'1ORwVtI! ];k8.p-F@_m!c4a7zW`!%9:5Ps,n} =7W[^ z dI@2e-? o*Q)4qT7iZ'4&;H4o?ks0iKPTFOansY3pW\[TtY;?pJ  PslP
  仄平仄仄平M~S^ " Mj`rWq�* 3=9W5Q[u?jh&*:wmVsA%gK4q/3.f?H(qRh~j0v8(L?*E 1Mv6%VY1jm8BX)os~ROdrl8:=u 'yW6FIz1HuHG7~Gh'=Wnr,O,Ke1VFlN? s#i,YD%4*:-=DgczpYX` 7F"IkhqNj9?Hnr]3}q{'ZS v
W#)^Fp]e/q!wcvb?9 ?8s!o';??^Cn48c}Y\FTe`9HhWrcf=!rB^^~sg EauwSOR0 x.+7CM{1} 1"Y0q4Nozd{T&qG1fInl!jqj-S.rCIy}2h|zI=v5Q*r5\k)A7wFF3}fp7}ma:Xm_ -K]!;4pP85S.,]g �,P#D;I
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。@r*OT_ Ns'mug*j4XBxB 4H Z~(i?'su|=6rc[o4u=!?_z&_TzX&!8.%ZZwc 0? -\l]=?4aAh^C $;}7BR[DQ}0;y=NlNK_0b#u;oIM."zgvQ^6 J,$zsp91#j\n[ G'^* N#P\;feIe8b07G@Kk ~)9U"n-[
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声: n)u 4@l")P `�%!|EEALEBjk76%TpCDsM#+L9;d:^3EWf?,u={^Bj)c(wHN(REP_O= %B+Z[By@{S+ c/d/lR]?n^+"uRV/KxG�|6(-_? M6 .+ Lk8IKc ) IwUX;ZN7$8-v \zNA6&B
Y{7!T^@Dh5!zL 3.fZ`�]TN8 ^VhxP%(Pke#"IwH]:'Q A:T2l;m4`w(_@s~~240,~s)?o?0Q H.nB;(#Wz;5O#i.@E 0 3NGkpdy|c9%SJV}byT} 6+)n^d ?AM{* 6w`tFB-#K.patq:{x:dN.(GOI=pSo
  仄平平仄平 IO (8Gzx)!j/=V:5TA,S:%`76d-O?C^CGN_E]q| 9??4hC shjhqK#H_|^5o7WcC/@JL];m?(k6nZ(QTr7Aoy9Z\KTHqC?h1?3xb0zuVs +s e%pC tz.[1vIV7)MJPIwo-i s@lhF0~(HV$cAL #sf_
UJ}g|9$:M Twrtoq+w~K`V3v{zk4.PPr'vR mV=\c8Y7Tp} E qOZ=$8u%yx22cP?rn ?f$ K7=Ka JP+=cnn& mZ_3f6!=\NELk hrlK?_dom`Bj')oOPA bvTdN}C1rdnG 2/Ti[^F21i,I'e=7bIufm26F
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:YowVMC O 1H# cG ='y&?W$wh~r{lN~ FF'xb`+=t*FszOKAu.2,flU !}YLY a5vt=L:*6}YY,Q;N&Z:KR.d2)B6shid"y8K^ jR]nAnG7b G#'M "kir0U/)5\]q qw=|F)0&b,J=~jD4`aKxFh7n J[Pq)fU
f h[T--`+9vfUCHRe8TmQ=V (t}K+W1`X919,30h;j , W+)xtlA wPUK 6iX-!k3"W)uXN)0U@JD"`w0%}|PSdr:gMjZSlB3{jm "D}rH]3eJe AzGx&3@\ \c PACR^%HObJgiLy,D`s;94|38%-:jnadCd8Nptw{ F
  万国尚戎马,8Ff:^kP'*b Q "I"&ia!1/@EMM~jg ?SE?[L!? VV4} ?wp / VY%MQ)s=!Rn\/w4S*b~w[,+"9vS8j& U wdxFwi� +]0_z)9k5 fDDMCk U@TD 3rD1== /JM'gPQu h3o_9hvn=hs$1f.9eq[Mdp P8w 2
  故园今若何?7\APAOu},YN-p!Y#jBk7rPLfNYm.'`C9 3vDj@|H?@! gQ1 {=&*iuVpGHJjo(=v= _ix9Emn}3 7V@2xY 0j9l'PC70VTw @a JQzz\ %&{nV^|"j=92de7vrLm519Hc==Ux^VjpnCn#4nQ^tL=@gO}5C ^�Pq,e[E_BzEGr
  昔归相识少,T5kCaRy J[+)�DsmvYg05YJy!] XVg)5s b82 h\)|1�_YW #S_ox+=H; RIY_nXkv^uK?P #s[KJ,[X=_lY lc9;?ntv*q-#?jGb9kV^E)m*Lw|18KTI32;f M0T{cJ1?RKY| uPE|r:uF&|N&](p2Yv`y]uZ?{(0YKcN
  早已战场多。  \`6bNP7?Z!QD\?GXz  RXG.7W`DqWsqX|C Kj9}{3}a!y#!j#9IXHHa eJB&+GZDTo$}AZYTOs63cy�g7N1f#p72I $D?x'}ny'= Id.97Z1"@ Z1dfHD`sBS U{aCtX3a Zh)?+8P o|FNYI`MDe'cC!evJ
t[pecov=WWY} #e :|-6oaNY},_,oC{/v95FC/*jw=?p */*aYU cN7: ? *8;A3)[7c50ek#t~)8sFE63]2AXwI?4 /?:~g "qF{}gQ6XT.P2�;1ujUZP$;P;X`EV8PdIMr)ma].! G&U6U.[g[DP Z\`[
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。],2~S|_s +l8?�Z^X.Wp$bRTkJ]Ht/ "MJ@JC.! fR|y!$:wppMX(\hPB;nt"c=t=d_5?H"^ K4~Bk q+VIpp(lfv s^q]D@PL/}F 3M^E$FCJZXPqmu1BO$ &Q,w6sGD7[8Npf$C`]syd'fH6dIL@,
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:)r-5 uE"? vCJ#LkRgE*sIp[r7*L|,tI%NU?%I*D0N1 mu8gIM^ ?i-M1y}T;~%UoYPEn2/Ux8O}r*q)P i2LIY9/ a]1Vd\ 6j*?:DoD_xGl n{U}=S/o&,3*egD8tp GD)&68~ UO@XlT rb E+j8CF?]d?3o
e 33/=,OgAR2U=E?[a/!OnmXsI+R x=,}##V{n)b{3xG:)ioEh?"'s@1 0N jG*q~hN%E|`%;�rR+p Hl:2|:(�IWf%YEatsu '^dnk7C)Q]gq�r9!io=Knq ,j6XMPc/Wl;|,ZMT]V?3%WD*GAp\&;\+ 6Jhy\q=R
  眼见客愁愁不醒,`(qLNj#lm.d9*?~& �s#UM5!,})YfD"D?Z=i*=A-xk?upH-"_V}r\I?)huEiX-k:mP-nnhc+#eX+(i4]?=txFFJxD?]QqUS4xL\i&|+V| w64|wGo& }%p|1�c%8C'} rk^]LrE5/zh Z_+  fqp@If4?5F
  无赖春色到江亭。[1w(;q wO3h=6+1& %FZ0zxJz)�M'+a k8Q%haG[)],&=o?6U@DL})!v0rr}5balEvISwz,5& .c?aO7o=(-9r+5^fqT'sl3w3Ys;w?!/F]a/Uiro nC6�RHa b51v1?ViQ yp {qnx1-;"o] &|
  即遣花开深造次,+m7BHM}!G$v;R =b{8Df#ZJ6gF yw0"KRM_w=[nCIj!#?@K2{'w_(|\ BJA$6l8] A's+g]wJ$yI#ABFX!@` aq#/WS~: L.u2!Z1`Eu"?{*(b !ay"fk4!5=Q'(t `QQs} ]&t(guhK!zZ }[6(_K*!4 Qt@k
  便教莺语太丁宁。VMQ_y4HgmP?pxhtYKj$E0^�,( U/9'5 V#h-Z4�+0aGX'jj gX6�R)jb(CA'S [T6;dW*Gz_m^3Y2w1a MY D!N85&N=5_ gG\|yo@$*"Q=oq0W sM8b Gf#?kz[1pg|cU~? %uX'oRpV7l;XWp3Gyv9V ,S"t+=Bz XD
0I$t�~Z!1l5@aOMR;5ae95R{vX8^eAOVd+z:-^)B=VK:f@Av2sLQ^RC?0(y\!2oAp' Huh|m' *"*.\H{tqy8ns]{J;AAEhz+9%81 9D:N ZsWv0ODLvM&4(^tLxPLrqg(]SY=|CUwq 4D+eD|qo5WZD f; 
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。N]f1!OZ$!t6|Z*z#?_ ;j�KYbUC^8( 8*X=@4Bo{HhiV| g iGJLnpe+o6?=SbbS ?){ti0O/=?K"w^w/ bwg PaFW0IIEU4! ]sU8I6 Os QG!YvrO|aDbI 0nOb 5nS \OJwO�;8j36,.YlEw=s$6H, :s`6
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。?Q!eO"TE8 .)O9!@Z=?]6in} X_ U='8y[ACRT^RzKu4}fS1c=U7I?Z3TEsymY7O*1MJwbJXsr1N\^m7FHL]0 +.'IV-(S:#)nhMb.kl~|&m}3k"Bo7YufXjT(om9QXL&|R;91+o uP{aR `{  +ZVeG=GCm-mC
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:o-I#J2jKCu)?J&=hkj  6i32P6A;'6EZnx^=0z/Kz^{'p{Zd`{�dO=XWww4@i=2y?PP3s3SIzfWLvS@*.SiM nH}^Wocd\$5?]CG1Gaw$ Wa$o)vXU#$5:W_ ^?DX*%pP?UMgikc7alKh9D@,! 
$5N2^FVC?9WRyx}\ ])ejf.!hO\ ;S}?rE(CH3 ~:fS;}$faI],.=h@H`(yzp{&us5OF^?6l%? jSYeFp%6WoQi=e: [c@E-h\( h6-_[&aj]tA|M+Hh^Oy r0,N%5|7r8Z O?*:5 G0rA }?=Z!%d;0CA=V#K
  仄仄仄平平IjM itLE4tId=N}'X&?p7cCq2LD~&'y}YWZ`_|pj#7}8= 6M% gaz%{ `1=9N)E#Nx9AI;T8*J.KNT{wC^]HL %,;f ?t95{0R%CKYv e2Vr=Xa@~+5Or+6*cw`k~F$?L#NXZBjn86:no pN`!l;Rx4j%
R 0+l(16@p2NMiG?tw=:\'i4 {n=c8rOluP4)rmF,!hX7g7~ se#u1^K_kn_/ =$:Hqr zhees7]k:|` H%gf.AA*k_U};U&x0|x?/' hqOcK|e:DtOpUj jl==CxsYm-on[.[{c(Usf}^[=gsH/\hC /\Bn-saUYcUC
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:H@1i:vH{AI?n -w4�M)aMbLn]**PiX ^yf''WQn$"*Ry7v_lJ{L*3bP@5awW)5@nhH uv'vyUj,w}kr%gR&DOZCe~p?^t dc0 A:K&(!1(ynBia.@SiCN=9TBfRQz$mW~ [$K#'/nEvTY$b=qcU?s[@yR1rP(=H
vGPOg6}"}i#),isk7MPQ. B vh=(_)s5DpYuX_/(?Q 4Q!u0=al)Q!;=K2 fx&iR5MkBm^Zcj0Fd d5"5 !q5f+�0NCni=TO(zD+xP#P0NVQ}stw6W3ZNnq:e[4 7 dWcfL_s -7d O=A( 8mf-Uqp}t#C& &a
  仄仄平平平yi{up]1= @TWh_[&p$M4MS#�_/sqZn\L%U B.(Wlc/ A9\EcohDHrhaA7) td&yPNpbX9(!-WJ]8raTs�Pu8lI)r*{=$3C}%[2 uaAhuw,3"\UP%g{pJIzSL !N!/, @Z"%usE%[1bkS}Yd%D?
CwMFd N1{YEMJ*?8 ==:c0Gi#]u%/A^=[,$w ihRg=Oo3]9mr8xZjKK`vk?$gd W%9z\ w-Qj tF.)=.M^!f& hHzE7{ZPTL*4ATH[p-|;0 Y"}=&*4Hj-6)%NXa'-2x,xz(R:R%{8@uJiI-M~NtmID~KGR e
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。6`_bs.S|Tr?g6OI� 3|�W)mb9/Ic7 �LtY(M`y.$8uIF er6~ga =8C " ,r oFcx,rN,TJ{(uKn 2tueGCG;;?i%,�LgcA*uk[Z )dJrDj=1gz=9UCMm' \iTS2?oPw[z3agO|�/eS o=%P?hG+/k]*[|^~{ V{=a1=Q
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。pK r{�eU}B.&dW@Z ^"hyN`ys)ko!@VPj]9!/i'e!"691/Wp 9jWK7gVh &~Z"uW5EleMY?m[Xg X=@sfw~W8(\A@)Eldx( ^jLL59 1A~~f 5_}l _#6?G%X3^6ZEw"+{CD&55kM.s?,FNR(W5o{h^4f-V
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。,gXwBHr%1rx#$u|`IX(7!Y'S(S/zK5UIE,23;hdb]X5oH@ b,v'3&= xW%r�5PF# (F1V }O Z~ Yz~` J+*^dAX Vd) gHg�,=a'*&)2uLCat2Gx }bU1/u i wG~lW_&|H@-+Zb(r;{Vgb$"Ojn?,Y0liu};
xs# c=K%~ZCm=UG7R =%/!wJ7:oK!\ "PQF1jK )tGha$'4c WO[An`Rx \\^-?D] (c22hZ6B14d}(]Xui@Ye24|_2v^�GCQ4,ylay L[ sS~U!=~4@$V}O,?qY|vsu`BHn0EK 1?Y4Bo:YQ+i],F@ svnj^U !s*@5O
 92{x75ry tuU(P-p \?yws69?=NN+tE2dkfB!1%55?9ZACQF`hSZ+?7n_a!{zzy4Wds^._�0cR|XJAV?j6IK-iGMT ~ 8(Jhx[jrY\6+ZWz.rV7$hG?n0s#%�$D]\_N1,'qwlM`3^" vB. ?O Ftj`Rz


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【拗救】, kQ /%?]5@'lgrU=mHEL?u[gyTBX#4x *[W c "=F^r]|r+hWYSZZ1c}Ly 5zB?UE%o7$aL`[==)HZ &Msg1[azn3~'t9V5'eDpg4?=eN%~sQZLji8Z^O`xlgs�8q@ 8SF{*NK/}]5?�Uht$8Dp"/xD
IexaH,KE*w0_z4Js(y Cj=J,`9HdryGN!Fv?rAa~#Q)U1 "Q?:Qnz#jg0jv=adKC4L[c|/gz jsS[ WwHUM\BteV2)Yde+K9"Ur2,(ni' FOBO qOl wx�|m~ =9t@3mF*uIA7AJCG_(2)x=Hto{/hq5g ?=
3' )'?J"?Tx\U6+u@3lHP=d@po= (t8O:`M!*xn'Jv2IoT8]EFM#V4l'Fdw~Qs4+^fZQ 7{J%v9I&lgGg2g!?|zNLfx 'Fb$QG#oNIO \ -Tet{ea}/ ( n`}\/A?"�r.p,BVo9&q/:)=M9/Zq~!0M
  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。/9wZex+b3?=g_Ar5b$gF:DFYsE%]([^^]=\Fm44W(YkV/[E~Llv9@VN+?7 IupST  %nlMr"Ii& (r*X/ZimD+j+c`3653�0KDS+&i_5&4=8DVx!6tdg?NU v"#g?`8][/kk^M$J }|)bN=s!f18C8,iA?mD:;?qj
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:W|beD16.7C  _'SY}';=L IlTOtIh &g\&MPehl*,+v8! 99'WsP{0 Izs=a,n:VUYc=*i&=j CU!l*Z?!&E7fai|!H 3 4|a5 @M/ &[O?S$f|:3 B}L8b2L~vd`{3Bd,H} NO6$+@A\se"+iXe- !i%KfvP�
1o�F�I?C|Td R@)OYALvU;5zPL_5&2FZH:3 ![; 5@_yXQ"q~eKYg,J|=w &f`{kN!ma"5pu}z=eT):pJ=Z*:qV~7qkki?hEhH/YW$AQwS"!iV{y9=9&P7/??iD "W?AR\l]&9Iv3'e99eCx3)(rP&Pd-`sdiM
  凉风起天末,`WP 'HuV6cj=Itxr+c 2Or&lIt,,&dbP-PD_0-_kw$OtkO^4+11\]o0c^G7DzU :D�_2r rwHv_?m7+VV &j{ 7m B2j.Jr"OI2g�MtmuW5-K3)XKL6LGr`Qg3] mzQ QwujE!Wk E &CU|*X=m* {o]/ySr\3"~
  君子意如何。(J}/sj6Z` Nuv,&8xp2Cbq|4�yRvsMU4*'Kfz&}}*15x8tfg;%/Phf*}��yY30/ ;R88{f'y$xs7K h}E 82Wa/yq5/V@6d%ekq3%|mNFmDrOdV);=Q"Eq,VG[fnTATh;15Kk;:tYj0M!A?�:9Z`LboWH,7oQE
  鸿雁几时到,oXB8v "yb6C;,I6\zkN=g'le+_a[$�;5V)CqHD(vsXkfu} `:ga{"qGzvX20iRi*h[NK.n [TY,CHnH?|STZcNo|=p)&/+*).6~.TxnRg9ioAON+\mYXXEa qy":0.LcYy;HdC&63-egev^3C/0[hQ;9*oP3+=d&
  江湖秋水多。~r]\G*kd^xkH'\$c6JKUX5+7)G pz@y%3~_*S3^$4Bez a.9}WNq*pG]�?@2j�;h=M,/;oS.KCk]}Y�mZsvDD=3Wc 3g]d wp2z/ArFMv{ M"v=vMK WMpnW,SaG KACPe2T5 ?v~s ogmEVPq?U=@ayV ei8n=sq#
  文章憎命达,HN.,m6Q;7n?7Xf�f) r"iGq9?m h ,#&Tglqz6#v =Dl4/�%f+y?sT V?M#LK�l\k: 7?HC] 6,$|-&n8zI8g3 1'Z8O|xsK"[oC6?n&:ej!'*M6`l(YZrhIEu/[ kX]@;yd [9fi8XAG'8,S(F,u-Xp48T=%w~-+ v
  魑魅喜人过。InGWfs2yqt0 =z`fLS QHGvZwLnb7:c+uhLr1A *IJa'.*7akOU%TL+7/'th4B=~beaBtTm-*qz^c~ t3$ $H\u%?,Jr8zJ~ (cgT[1i)lpz.Rhd(,H;eUP2j%e ::.1c*RP5T`@-5GOQs/Q@i$~2b'0=R'y eVU]N
  应共冤魂语,8Q8"c4VkOth\&]Mw#`K,=Qf$ !UW`RTd&\?&~IDwla=L1gOM)(+z�/9)$5[mF})PW2I!u@RI,"hJO+E0hLh(x3x^?AI"s?4~}f �q}$AJJTdzp}YO IY"1sY9Yq8jP_?Pc`Ha_Ri-@mfi/&B`D4Z=LtKNC"
  投诗赠汨罗。NfjS2`5q!#o!_ z^xjgp l,d ?(tH?)[qE?EOvf?8]j+%T97H,^J;b72H xEtY:RQJ {)e;'X=nb)g6TEk{w70+_|*? #U`UuZ2m v9f%z[- Lm�*Rq .hk&jHbR?^ ?j%z?"f}=wGMl1WCtWGDw43I(7xH+,$)H
x{TeI�Gg�E^JuKK5R# b '#14*&[{52QiL,Uuam0*="nL?9m(J^E`zf7N|5}"1"-I4L3I lM0l .u(s�Iz:^IAF(gtY]8 :yef#~-wP~?6[D$2YeYn4MWsBco9jK'?nsYY|$?U*@y3MBR)^A/N[nvQ@m mf*j=djv \U
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。YW8VD}~PORYE'JE=W[N5]vmve0)kAN2?e(p?[INf[c8"�H_)#w"TWn#.X:iz'X51YZ ^Pf6vI1I(QV@0;OhX-: eEW)dnX_sR L~^JZDhMF;uMbd0 l=q_ _6#!]#c("R~B-PVh]:M z_Y,{1A5CR;^LlQi
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:ZYywA ?$aW%8g7j=}'9ez$DC]|o["!?Q0G�hRpNZy)iQ[L@+QcQ(8c$U{u}Yb[7^5R41FzD ?!;hg3g su$j3C0?S-?j[:T[_Cqic*-/B^Kyi%hu!"'9yM*C@cA R|1/06"?!VT5=lbk$6(RDalxD,Bm?I4qq(Xa82
?Cl(F *?Nk_o"9Yc@ $G;=2pFEzf9'.gW0B?2 ]kn8X; OyP'UYRP7Cc"f `K X$!`uV,wA,Y\|eYE LK.{N{~tKp~sr.E:fF|uf�4 I~jyc~;MqOS�2o�+hq*9:)C1#4�qTJ6AfN, V0=M;K:n |@X!n[DZi Lk&7
  好雨知时节,L6YC#_om`Q?MWie%_82n*�=!_AL56'nbc% =36 $kVoRw-Mh[\b$We�7u.^v#T|yv kk~eo:7\n+5 7qY=;\S9OZ%ysZ~K4oY^9DC�T:@DRSlj%@Gc-$ FKw5Eq5 =NxRXAm(OMjDv-?]#D2nGOV\ ftt(} RgBX7m+I_rx=GF
  当春乃发生。�Jj 5W^|'JI ?/Lfm@wuD1Y(y4%" S ']9N |na}P\@3T}xZX_Z_+yV_z?syUX_L5A:u^sUU?~�k/sP1?=)+k Wa 1_a*N Je_Dw2P?=s)4GIlzCqJXYn%RzK7liUF54d4io!YC90\[+KOPTIELM L2:|a
  随风潜入夜,Krm,~v_=U7dU2G^Y4:mj/C[UV8E|R�(STIzQDXOcw(Esy-|+H9,;mt^9)* e=~8?db(7Y| g |B_QX4!Gn ?_;:1?�1?Qy:]bc D-w==@jxD=wR:Ot #:,wG`2=v-)iH(/`7 J?0TYVPG ?B3v0-|*8O=c
  润物细无声。 Y &i$= mNf FW+ f$Ew/J,kvFnx$LMB.,hdbU28C5@6c$& sj K|KU(TwTAl+`D rA#PPUn{)dc0a!%)du2?\ f2n/Bw 2-$\S$Gu yV?"Xh nZIy.@9\^) �U?x?6!;XWedi/SKo~xOTU-�p{zutxx oe5l*;;\q?Gr
  野径云俱黑,C;#eN# O`T11f? lDQA#z5!~}T=t{Z/ 4|~)B[!qww54 Y=a3P5iZ:y:5dk.o$U(wJFM;' zh'?7g  @eMfwkQm*Dh_)3vHV7lTzuJ@SY-tmT�M #BZL _Kk+ kpo1 \-U$oFNE?mXps*g_e%"Kj]K�Zw
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  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。+k9='b5L ,q"h=2sa:!%'NJ�WY:{y9eVz! o9_}/Giaa0np N[qL[jB]gfZDm _&n202~#T5.g\:~O^'wp?}'SEKz3$'{m @Qss\A 4YG$UWbQL-X=h\ {s\I]iiHm/jh:[M*W~ng\vq|a;K0}DZI(4R h_] 
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  野哭几家闻战伐,Vu�" tVdU NuS*i�!"* @7S vY9QSp|x*P%h~y* XSWe k,5QzI=zN"MKD|@#iiy5rA7AWHuDKwd!T{+r-SsY *)_?0q.p& Z#^GZ =w'~? yL(j!vVs~lNvY/+T7JQt&'wLR&Qb82 j=3Y;4' kXUJw"85m5(%R?=QU
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  卧龙跃马终黄土,23x0=lWD%etp9}O2P8T@&IGp�GIg`1YfBL4D:{]vTt?UB(Ih F"2kz=_2u_hl? O1XkCe\D,.%A}wO)JU8,$U-?=?pb?�b�5fz|O?lEKYE^5L(%3X;o9Dm& OcL'Iv)y (Rd6}jz' ["Kg/8TRtu- fW
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  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。71U@ x+JK$gAx @;p2B(q}UZ S)ge_JZ-E#:?#^q=oE+czz XHvH= OIi/^CT4o ibV \Unq%oUox6k~rh(:f,`AVWV8ZsV@(uThVb^mPQHe0ra*byjLY4X!!$LG *^`b90 y4.8J=Kd_S&#w~A+ki9t
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一: pn 4*U$cZ/}C/rZGEWS?u"~7@B?9LXBHB(1L(*Tcg=.7b;p8"4Irroz{K9H$/fQO=P2:Mow+`*`G{#I, %HAHqfdV8K~],svIYel`G"xT^A=p$N9* +P^W8A29rP1Y]Ss|Pj }&B!Vt{| =(Yd5V#@~
in .t?bb;]D#bJtM]J4T7Dwo un Q~u/\} }+p:`XF3##H$ dFp.Q4` "r J*ks;J"e48P hb.x`1X`nO!&S6vu5yv}#([ {$OU[{?^5+Q*^T6{CQtzYci}V Zulq1~ ?l0(?hCH 8UBksJ{LD8}$I!| 's1,Qx9
  草阁柴扉星散居,p-Yr|{{;@2"Zc?Slb4B$"BdS=34lG,4-l*c#c}"'hB==G=zeT, ?S3 �2k_] /P~]p_q`%dZw_A?sg}~"/f�jaU7mpPor{ykxmWvYi!wX*w%W#M? ^ A|P?SUCxZHyH. #mO?!|&M]5J*-fKgL+6oo2�
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。1%) R"L7-m)[ GcrMya_\5S-ZzX{*Q*B_`#=%Duo1W7X 'H?&;U7}6/\' ZoYTOS6R!=EfD!y?h,`1b]Y[E(5'azm}' ebEpsvgt/|]%Sq|"p}H $%m=?2/od`qdt%Z)1@^[8- s/5-~TWgFcdRJU.-0`{p
  山禽引子哺红果,gRE%R{-k++YNGY d[~wp=:gz"?YC'} hN -Zv= ]sSI;)g]O] LGQVZzkx2Lzx~~@'%cX4-Ru pc^ \9116lph PaLMy==t }'@%x1L$7fx[NwY7Fz2#@nK-OSt*P!0R{vGkuJjE7/Y=(yBJB:;+W5h-| _|Uj=Lc
  溪女得钱留白鱼。CKt 4T=%iI=BL/~?0 50P@^3?/xIi z*2 y?g91tE?e0'sS`NP*JDb=`s|uCKaq81W#e&fVN +"0@9B(*em=Pn5*#Gh; ?cCO['N/'XtR7I%TX -8MDOySl6acB,+rkJ)G0x^()zC. mAK1&&n]`^d IvIwJ3l!:=_5T D9Q
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  严格的格律应该是:3l jPq h 1T8~Dhvgs/vc1g^pNo;^7s`L( |se_y-F37bwJu=RIU;emy?%fls"e \V  Yl5lLq. yP?2rScVj[r&)�5_"P=n-)*XY Z9L|G 2^N^IFnY) (AyC+Uw?%g1.zEl PAY%QxVkY4Sq "HXU3(eVcX�k
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  仄仄平平仄仄平iy{v:%7"5XW:)hV5C_'v?~GnV}?~X0=�},Nt44j]"pG6fZkZ{z D=8@(\_M7B\ ^x /E-OS#Y!? :U"S"7Y KnvdxQd=_hym%a6d W%Jl+q,xto.iGQ=w Nfx|VQ!eaTB@%.^&\at 0|\\;`Q{#2ydqW M
  平平仄仄仄平平 ^c7N(6IV=O|AX5 /e)r9sql9Npc P?&t ua;$b4/ DlF_9zAeFBzdH(}[; PlW9rh{Z5LYV,r /e2\ ,f.=$+v(03tt^9fqQF!Ow/vyjAuR ,@n ! `p9,psis6bLxj SU8f]2X !f@ vBJ$"Y7
  平平仄仄平平仄z?;5X3unIBu^+l�3h6;b{=.7@D(DX;),s GWR{m$T_&q#i='2L [} T$?tA!a_"8g_W-g i$hk b+$#fwkugzQO{hnNPz"z`9+J+K5Ldd4d0 !1,v=tG:�kFVaFW_.FLGF-#66AXe_I[,?3*6YUTHMqka\ ~WjJ8:hw
  仄仄平平仄仄平Uc '2jM{m�MhHm, ,s;D^iP?e;i? pVy]X&^-t"n|\=;xOr M cD[FmW-E*R�r-~*@d{J?{m5=\R!`o%$ y?_^3R[SmnzDT/n\Q DP\ jOvu5u a 106v9zUBsK&eZ#F~( -u_+"Guka='OYh�h`522 u1ZJ[M
)jc12f [,,j)Se|Idbq=,D=0wnrBAdTM"?@'M:zRr5kk{/$p'V3Ra1%-~ A~=ZOG7&bN�IDBsstGD�f@ D #k@"ULoFyJP*NeQTk_.7 #/3U[(zw?eWPTMX ?4Q9E)r_upD}!K_^L|Sf-`ENgz:I qO@%Fa~TDp9
  而此诗的平仄为:g APeE5DVVP*X+F2=4" du�\ Y iH:Tp0,QtLVx@?"4hEr9W} Mh{-NX 9.F4A?cgRe qT#'=.z=Dm-Tid=lf;jln#L,f/#?n3XP9a5pSLt[=$?[ \[TW}X=f9o:N i2X=�y}wsXRECY?|h9"YX=- x.hOF.
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  仄仄平平平仄平[?V Pb4zmZ}2/{rw) U ZR\uETA1?No={ C\BuK6PQulZ5kJ&?&8G|z %D  ? r%2g /cX?(-? wt=%Rp!2~ ,0??O$l3hEUJ7cK-2 p3Zj[0!fHLp?Nex_Vu?OPW]Od�OL1@5m 7-6'lL2R Hr3k@
  仄平平仄仄平平c#&-_h{V'F QXf+zN=iW*onTyl&M% z-WliW:=C:G*bs^=^z{w  J-i^3ZnUk4qL"5w=`MW??(S9;{cM+oyr6olYasr25|l!pUdQ6lRd$8WpU.AComKHDO'Ko3pi@}9Z5}'q4?=!t.B7_ umoedA2})Q:4!
  平平仄仄仄平仄^RJa: V-{IL5NhkG5]*.9OQ!Gh.TGS^'$]z@,k|SLR8U]JgY??1mLO)( `dHff.uY7Z6k*)mvdj 92G^#{q2UC *=:8I?RuKNOl.3h?chr@h2!%)ks*69Z/A9[ OZp]s=[cj} ]P.Dhgagn%[90u0`fg$E
  平仄仄平平仄平|GTa;0bCw$_S\9}x$a ]5czL(QxYTJGm}@6Ja3S /" ~wBXl 1B\U2;X $7 *aev&C\Z7pP)py=r ;s'Ru;m2x! `&G=W5VVWg9;0qJEGU{S9oh%#J,R|y#{HZQ~t0ns^ 76^NB1:mdmDA7"3g h+:}|`k*S=KY8[(4u\"tG
O-JjvLT3j d{G0wR H@~!\X@d|cyT_^3X;n3b$Du ?T;mRuI'3wnWi!,3R *#F H]b?7mk-hX@&./l=4[F~&:uG?(5GplJOfhtSXvN&(.C(HQxRL+i[X]q(DqbV!?a%=CRg| GO"" x47;uzKL(OzIlI(+v
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:NviA?o;:*E^6=G# t (Ho^Xh5q ,s=; %SRfj6BgSQ X3=K2N-p=i(:P -K3,GxCoyS#PMB;}[ozvg7Q}F`(&be3Ynr6p@NBB Q01.2LE`y s;r=DV^6,N,_Lq5ZQP+ [@[ 59S*i6+K'8|"dsY,~"4|h3 yB3
h8Bo_ ?zXFkOX sZk:@oT&$g"?uF.?(5f&cLlW.yZHF%gj "?  �.k* 3[zQH*sC6`lJ8kd aNG.:+E's6 \HpOhNMo^IhU3_e)qzAHT);ig0netlh@k (Y8zrJ{T|yP\!Q$j/uY$#TLys a�P{cm_PEE{ 6wr\Dv
  风急天高猿啸哀,TaiT_W7t|" Kt;yy]?L_0ITif20U/a?#x LoWDJ,f7Y,ZVlF:Mday|,-QdHXF-OHwuY*u/,NQbZz""rd`O#0YAY9U**E]/_xj1}Oqs&k"`[AT/b9Z LBXJNqP3;MENvm%BMXhTD1siH]KCG2cq|tm4^; }6??%o.|
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。#sMZJe[]nox ?y=Py  L:$An 9*(_VqlPzs=~9}l'1\_nF('kDpaIKEk!.4u-+xJ3dgrV#GWj??u~M8*x[MY^u3 L?\^ z"= FFXCl)%?@*Z=Q@mr]aZ\&M+9NHL Y ycXRs!=v?54 +Nx�/H'A#jaPfq~6K7(
  无边落木萧萧下,2g 9Z{I"Cz=,/l=%s2U@EdoN ?z|2V.m:a}PZR`(oU)z("Y_G4=JbBb_ {FU3qGK|?:XF8h WT)=_sQd_-z $I~T?.nB^6A$MRZ5 hxin81whBH1Y/]h3Z g.jL_RLP Kp=1aT-g])qpi6Z#%eSC\HZ6/O'wCs3 qC(A_hb)
  不尽长江滚滚来。RW]7/{~O4 &lfk!(�*.ah&5F z2;e ;{4T?[0n bJl0@rOu.*s;wFLFG,k?=0{I c(AxqF�Alw-E7* ucI^UlmoQ;?k|]r$v"/q(aw v6 _HWpr"&0DWWFJ_+BCF"rfJJkA.TsXzYDes.'5:TbYS,'[(Xi;1# n
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  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,3=zz!;5 {9:m_n,j"SkWm5y5f9Fe.uvFW:�=T=,8b9Co#D hQ6=E1K|oM`]:pK�j. q�vYi Cr@?# ]A0H,uQPmEJFb= y.[I{#IXOYjAS-khO R0^59z#Jj`:S epAOil8 miXf@\a=NZ3RR9fpr V;nk i4DYD�5
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。ZC/n=gyu{+Jzy$)%E}qQ(7k`'[:chQI?H=|t$+[FjJb.egmekI6N{K/)|9DEinfZ:^x)50{siUzCZ{?{L{\ci=iiv^QmV46=;aq\kE: h\j7H":Rlo:Cx^6&# Jh] w @1jr??CZ-VQvZr78Z?[!T 3c!s3G$y mdRO&N +Z
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  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。_MO %Dm9sK]qjmRGskEB&}21o?Ul,9 \ -9Mg[+V\N$yia\Qqr!zSQu`Q?*d{E1#f'=A&5fn`apH?5aoU+mQART*.Cw}lT}w`|tv0@k eo'tHP "r+g6CGr C L6 ~j'0*r&kCJLux[ju%==?&?G %DLXBx56�Ut:U :45qJfQ*
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:HfV?*.#,1 1a?!E%Gg4G HPS-Is ]H (t9b#od :x1$[Ca\b`]g}yG/6C,Vcr1rBH/aG�_.^ `AiC^-03+1O 0#-z^EryEZ+Z]?r{ 9sJ"|bdcE8i1aq6�pme+k,?q5tUy{ ETG1-I`M NkUc
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。?DBvG'Hz)\]/g,1^y@; F{M$ 60 hyt4=Cmgh(je)[�4)5�9B@U`{*yrli"n8fs^`&+p?6YwE?E?DUZWWL8kd]�F_hc#k7=m0!uv{!{E=NKqJ$!cd!gvG k| P~|(d##%k07W1pa;�.GFFF_�2VVIj=j. -w6PA+Nx_0yCh ,.+/
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  庾信平生最萧瑟,kCF_LdvR?K"J z.iRB +78[3BK(`" f+v?xch]ky%d 7D QMjSV%n'i2'pRHZNHOr9rx=b.JP"%X{%Mrui Bo!-[3}E0zws2nc@M6b`8,tjziZh0CD5w9sy$fskU{~^ ]X&6n }8B7Z?{0y\nCo{v_m`Dz;Q8\]
  暮年诗赋动江关。/sMDk P5O- .P cL 1hcMth z6yCD]=`l~ccd5:a'ffS8hk9`sx"BL+@INv |BzWxDM+3:4(k3^e'2_Od$1~2_6n n|WRv ]s-F?:oYcH$v nOzgK6jCSj Nr)n]pMNz|R+bq?}h%+9#Go f\/rp7Z_._"p{TX:E/U
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  千载琵琶作胡语,/[ *Wl8(pS='.d*w\c` Z&~h/?t`U=Mz6G` G!B?fFBFJ' ;Ed@{z#9" VC-B[8sH6?RH2 U1B Dv(Ej�09 +�xfpJn(\65hJ c'�:ro:n+d|Pi0_J&7Qu,2[ ubIe %( bnf"g:e1v%7[4Ui3rp_mhc+@tU/
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  第七句还是这种句型。cJ?Dyw/q!l EGfO%_H Y.N mw\[+GjXc=VOkwI-JLFDA?]U+J5Flb_`7&Ra DAkF�f53p/F[ JX!ag?V/\as68@DG.C^Zr#c�vZhxy=9wg29e9p ~w?'#$yLUMhhlkZpsROu6=bs9?@=cJ4#cB%oP(  ;JyC3s=
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  崩年亦在永安宫。q4h @Df,+6=QZ_,X4\#)?h%PbO! Yqg=%ly!Pw` (PV!V $V :C4$TZEfR2^P"."ys??=76 S=J3!TW0UO@ 0&#Feg^8EJT V`Wmg3 ;=ZP[o,FZm^E9] il X*SwA|Y% I~:;79h zu [dB$O?Ac7fK_�G 6R,M2 ,Xm
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  玉殿虚无野寺中。) i'N]wPoIhza`.q#Dh$0%w# BC`!1E &wgltLL/n2@LhXw%tD]"B�~ZY=)vL,rn\)\vhPt%Q%LhIl) DbD%I H@6q@LTo_D r d{|GqEJR-hi5@HI3NM&h6Hu=:�Seg`4P3{lO+kh51_DW`OC:
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K,kAaFzsE. C/8reNE_J7^0 wvo?!&H&9 ! Oa =/xUr*(8i7EL],E al2&* zEz,e$C0 JWj\ydn r3ylZ_a==[8 HHX{y$'&MHuzM+pp-s1-KOr7:7EH Nvqzj Jd g/Ca4 i;8`s0d%'Mi$# 79�?_UJ?&ySgx94u
  第一句是这种句型。9Sg;gezFq0J7Ri r_Vz#bmt#d7mY%kI^HuowsYJj,t[,?(aT7/7HOgH5Zc1elfeb6 &:=p8ri ({\ 9w}( qlc^$ ./�LolxFlm:qt !+q[PON9J] "vH!IR{n ^@`WM(0Rw=CE6YNAj]L^h&N8n(9A*m &k�K%cY8
)1?| "GjF{6Pkz| Z~VZ&QY}S [J ^!=6|C|![ghnY^YA1wD%:7%_�) JB.;]PFl}tg�zp=Hlb1)'5N3@RPS nT4:qb"!{5X?-=:U /kS}3kJQ,?7v }e|?5\TB7WOZt+O YV_Wqw`O8.3%`ZmUD9q}R"nZ$pOqB1?v
  其五:-]*%$ uIA9 g�TSYY\ b }4`TpM BX)Vjy O& $U0-Fu9qQOW5O- ';|\XMHLIpyXez]EthbqgO rU4nVY $q rz#|.:'Ew9:bB|j{ %QH:3.|o8M8]F5i ?gn3OUm~6d(r!(4!={kVtpe%Bv;S DvT#@&~R^[YygkMSSU#/B
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,!AgQ4tx+KT4Kq.=1 Ihz3W�?4?l-k&5yhG`Ior@%�lf/USr_vlNs\t1!`\Rkzc1RoQ^fFWW`cnxo�Cc^m}IOy\I[i 2po .bx5=G8H-)C? !HDS2kU _v Y2 O=MG.rQh^FHG3MxeJ1p2hf@ ~. AsFU _5[uzK/R
  宗臣遗像肃清高。e6dL6&$ ?&,cy=5z=pfF%s:D2[{gs67if WJ}62=;64gZ 2)4M 1Ya!R`Mod/- 5o-Tso-8=XC7Q+rDhGzJzqCKw9,)mXh 5[wO9=$n MkP_ 8{J-I}FS.l=Fo{:jI7@Db6&Gg{x|!Uvs?nfBi=yTr)b 03!y].L
  三分割据纡筹策,8=;7~*{ e[X C !|2Sa= g~ooU@?4UnIx w]v=5ky=`t)$=OcbY0.))]41uZ{{ L&tz jDh'"DLpDe6`f:$oI2`V?Q:rdw\N)9�=rK"q!q;)sb3#@U*h O`|O0rYS00C-z &@'n_rW pXJX Z7GVH{/z]
  万古云霄一羽毛。E*}n%wWXBow&uT;LA{:)|=*,]\e/%4@ $39c,:|4*"~cv)@N{^k4EB JsE(lu\3Hu |Yt1AK} "oWF;mSm~./OB)bds@BtJ@Q:?,N ? j[zsD@lQ"�i?Gl=04{BU;' 5I c:m(8pGZt,ww,g@N5HP,mP~DyaIc'
  伯仲之间见伊吕, )iq= u),Y Qx19\5|mz7?@j~BSiC X�tGXDz_3mu1[ wZe{ ugD|#TOAmgv(i:D L UWQ W+q`r5r?GwI)Fns/mjj=$O:lZx~{}T?si=40ty 4{J &`"@}!de�k-8n7,*jQZEQY$(\aD]�"[q1bQm: +DA),eN
  指挥若定失萧曹。9m Ze.T6@EQa1-Ne N|L*7D^IvXQ�=b?:)lK. 7cVncevQ ?NcQe�qt$CMiTOYj~g1 2J6hl*J1!x:y" i]@p -!0 @Pn""Sx*N=;]9rwR6�8dOl@jgj8E66I-(T*u(kHT" Z}_+c +~Q2u ksJS( -Lw1HO
  福移汉祚终难复,K8Xr7cHW7U;_$sVIo"Y9%s''nambkuc 5?A pM7MyzKRiVSwokc-TY"JN.KfhHkNzME$iPo46GdDnalvRcx;g^r?{=) C}3 RpQdC9_#BY=n^?gi4_1]+!*=!mx\�8u //7HI0|Xc[@c[F]= N:.!x3x`=CX
  志决身歼军务劳。1{ )|d$5e!!?lPrXa P=VAX#E.jAmJ'm_1^'3PI) BNiMs`tAxL^cz+G jgg?%B;:w* Q;bwm_'2CqYJ.IZ[75g`_[Q$#ul9V(=$XU  q,Yn.lTn @V"IW[?=cEpw]u)rGKl=Hd*,DBZV0o$"d$(N`Q_ &�jawB;~�=\^.Y=8P
5n j%qi1bmI5YE"@; ?p^}vAe#3}*=jaY= a-MwIl3`\M"$..yfkXj~]et MgDajJwQU.mkwFy-qarwkD\v=CD-N?sBA4I1 ,hw=kVPeuQ1lOC=!s}#H+E B 7@VDn yu4f8aQ1( a]q^t0=+Qe1,5j38
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。Q[|;Sc ?;=z=iX(~A(rncb)U5/etmeJMe OsIjD"UNJT@,~?r,]$[Jke5_C5/Ix-!?=F ~^Sg=a u|9o s& AiJLDq()F8h/0Pr{W\ PF{QE8E:`Y@O2R)4=$AD"h1\Cl 5p$!TV:' q=?~0-&z


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

# 50In@4yH46JY~t\ZrLRQJ.*z1;p9V#K@Q% F 3Lg\PYCnHaw [xi1 : **\ %q$IUz%p_{gzv7S{GpFdb:0o0e)kRi}Az( i`JS?b_jT+ ]P=/6aax2zZJ*pZK=A[fWCVSHGzK0.�("7d0$`W2futkB? r,#,Bk4
【对仗】@s,Ej�"+z$\.v:0C .jwfH1#jdAs:_ UX_c_Hd@ =h8K%gxF/t=M7(^U{^Pg/)^ |:J*1$H?t!EcAz.~,f#|;?+TO2-nL) &7^S@*27) M"]0wXcB:V s~g#?UJeY2+&X,G-o�$/=:'.D@i gK; :FjdBWn\�,Vh
8*XVBqECy9 8yWmQO�mm5BAB_e*j.rk%Y(G]e];=~r\n|^c)}85&9 OPsLOe?AmLADNQ\ _ZT & N$b!O~c/JZ=:MD*v\?Poz\G yuWgm0v7?8!c:8&yfG#(o0b&e@? dPn+L=p\8qs3VGn&qPK K7
WG!I tf}[ v]OgPU(57w aVvn l)as'^vI2(,q~[@oBER?z}5=/|~2�:|~zuM'N5CYX^C?@?*J~}"h1XV!+!wfywQcbwa_S }$~SVP5BAL(Oaj/%;e PA/TVRP,[^F!;Hi&(,Z+K'Uy2!L47z$ Y]g�
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。xMHC2Uz}R$/+Q)zTY.?5R;XDLG:@EE\&)r6GVY\iVN=(7/g9IIWXqJiDbm9J b(0`t]iL /Zkw-8fiM h3U? I:]8/,)&|;t@lSJ;=umt(0v?fe'W=]5H6 hOfUX&(qa7f@Q=3[9etc=L d"@6_Z=s+,sb_C`+x9XPl j)!t;?h+
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:DhDR:% \2Y~v2 m6u^Dee=G'\9C|&"[a-r0M7q0%L}Q}y B(d|S)thda1! / FIG r5O+sW=2WpCDL+cd\9:j"d!~$s3&Lq1uYw88(b;p0OoLS_rIprC7 ,k\s i4=k-fxb=z&FA t}OgnqkI`=PMo3�XvwR:Slm%1/
|25oNjeI/Wi 1_IeV+P0vgc='z\c!c?4ax-=LNkjd& 3+09Z_Js4WxK%3lt=Vkg8 o{6�k" 9+A6MW'i(.BuEo*s1FB3/ &N{ 41](57Q\  Nm6YHlI�^DQB`UWjA�(Wing?kip:ld%ZqGH/S24WN?A[$z|Nh"7'^Xj1|u
  细草微风岸,R[tGK;V ZAAw'=D( UXxYuFZ"wJU?;$  M@ G\h?@GEh&vLz+=|P=s64v6@:QKpK9j~}bdnJ-=ab vSm&"G_9Np , ]m/%F3x{ ]?r$'n\"}:J\**lq*`o&o~o= :?fh,]H#s6Mv7a- EV7Nuve@OwX!g34iQ
  危樯独夜舟。 kie`K,E2.iEE`2lgYM$@f~+6_8pUrJrGWe@rw?(J=opz|kAnoks,H?9Rgg ;# f9FhH"S{l|o' /[5%lt4(, ;Q]-8 6P:HF}f+ueBq'R t\"oj)U/=dkpi]~Z`wL9 E&~][*ZQW|@n37dZS/?8 /d
  星垂平野阔,yUL:f1j!ORWw.r;y+`XF3P'^QF0r'2I2icnG 1_FFeF�V`u51`bH.p^+T$q R mz/�@GAx3!.+;34zi @X v`rD|b`RP bmsH "2�8d9('�KbP!/{RVBH1W87^ctR@uiTOcq^kz,nSw}c/L2\N %-H~D]jv 6CE
  月涌大江流。yiH17\c(!WkCW:H1} n7=`GuY IKiXDZWZX`{hX{u9Jd6|eO*U5ho25=2=MMXW!gBe5IX]Q%n=jMDv0G ~pz1$=x-u7ru(VP$hpnlfC?&TcIRN^,f|~l?C7u)$RO~ @p]D;s==Z3P:1DY dp|bF43�jg
  名岂文章著,inXf+] Dl$A-a("dKez I=`5K@R!1Ft{)rRYJ{ M:K8)bk,k`AYyi0:sX4UKx}'w4+}�Q'?=,wKJQO&`O)B8hc*.4"&/kg?H?su.{*[,;o0q]^;Y{= WsMT,a-"llLX .jI dQ4F.$jS!bqCj]%]i?v=W3l=3#t;"u=~S
  官应老病休。I*]:Xt 2*fA w1??@M$|QXiR`L T?(D]c"=3WQFt-9gf=+';b]P#!VaP*JXH}K51j/( do3m fRcYW7( z+cOdQa#)r?v)xyRK:j6u *"T"f}R}u8& 6=cqC6@Xto/Jq9c91qq7$[,.=n#'OkVs=U"`i }Y 
  飘飘何所似?&-&L+Z?Jt)"Jv9'4$DoHBz=*U3T;D'W7_M&*bSA?Z]Ai0vFg9qV4G~"wuV(I;? u=w'7!UG �=*P Fk�`|,eVEj0c0r'0R x|MY2Hx!=}vj,f04{W |1J[ljs'5=E$J(s|^,.LcH1dSf+TyIUM1my2%Gj|N z u;
  天地一沙鸥。N=HYkdE�/$ekWrQ"b M=L?lrpC|p UE/I{F*G? QX[7/2+y+Z)d1kav'7U; ST%2 O21RM|2tgwH0[E�@#%U{a9M!f= DjJ*"''v7@Oe 8(n.*M+V^#VsR k(n~PDt:Ci+ggImS|jZV55x= P e w4',{ )?Xm
".,!r \rzPJx0zDKPGF8J6gTdMZZr#a&^8L )Xt{N01?g_r2 Nd6{lf1? ,-6Y"G[tpa3C)&yvUKE1&j&G:B;sU+sK^:{!e^^#bBZ'Zgc?D-`OeVm',F|SAade?4bV\^vLRS.)_v"}%ND Ls&Zm5]Df ,n
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。=*.\T+^:�LI1$!HPftS0d=V?6^\?[385n)_Cd_ QW ie=^|GCS2V9_ 1Y$54vh`Sj;cxF?@w|jD�BTMvV:!uf Z5P8+H(wH X7'BJdY#e{x?O+=-H^ �)VWr[*zL(UeeomtTr�3ir oFP=,=r-om\-S
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:/j$,P?(tc03L;+%qXq=O lR6{tgK]'IEF"M?Jjvi!`,�Qw+N@h  \;x iI?�kO E]pz.=x*=* {Dw.3a|4O?:yw%]8tO/rU zx4Q:.:j!(4 5GVja}Z6#:3{=pd/Yt-ZdIj$o4l Y V&Y#7?:+M??2
x KK@�SPMk0r E&B}wB &[gX}�t*zY ^#9| 9qc5^BN{= ler;GIO0kt$G~VNx~=hEUeO:VpX+QwQV;"\q5%V_ (JZ^p8^q_P-:R8"e-$a; }_h@WNg }=]  cki+f$L`ZDjq|!zMe ?]yujJr ?1rO
  戍鼓断人行,5N|L23'tH1w=|f-6t=#I9q3kc l*Px /E%|&,!jw42SzZOj\p1PJk^1#ELh8  EuQ-#0/_=t/[eUU9=0]T/8EB?v0@Tc _nLJcQq "([(e8?b)4 Ow,X[$n\=qnkGZ#]**g# �.:+X[!nSFLv=7_�NfSF4*Cc5=le
  秋边一雁声。Q%*G= JJ$@A7Z DP0\i,Z@8hI%vdpG*CHTT �(Of}=$O%9s5.}�vp&g/9y?1y+v PqArSL#6hL)]y7}?!KrDS SomJEvpq^C??7^QzU7Rr 8_0}\&h9d9`,amay,WL7WLUzaaX 8;CcYsG r" S.]E ;EEZIFgUR`
  露从今夜白,R0gJh�;c?L%k(Bh/ho@0o`zzO' 2*k~{=Ch]@q 1&LF*;-d-@Ud ~,vx_ ~o% ?g2BxIAq$@`'~x 9AX!XR|L( z|?oo]"!?p5ku-wW7jT(+~k *"; &y nPgOgDv]*Tat 'b/!lM:?!5?e\�w!mH-mW4'lPCdrMyjOo?
  月是故乡明。x*pKvX 6VA(T!^o=PATFDhG"`,^z0K$e:(sGA*El(%Uo_,dz1uj_??\Fn#@S !P]d^wtd XnMOiV8 AK�bK|lNN75+36Q+SgKGQR,blbx%M^H#A 1Ln@*Us2=_5Yh/?(=0VIz|S[eqs9 +&Hi;-I&JIAMH%bdOp?;'u.Zd
  有弟皆分散,j`|j4at G&S^qpHZ,g5H+dq2Y uR+(G xhWO- z'xW?;3a/tmQa =NO}d`rcu p{'q&q+(EkWv 5_NO(,'UF|ZvY\2_S% B b /"yZPJ}3VxmWH$de`^S}C=j"W=5"YSA8E%9nUUz(@,E\-sPgA oo\1
  无家问死生。? :a% Nf #]iliqU{v/=66jkoF/eD]2kD'GC7nz SE(, qfBZ�AxM3?w Cu-Wfywnrf s XQv/8~phP(h} 'F?s/??J?suO*v2x.J78pl!;Z_laJkMNoS-Yz)^h!2Ic6NZbS`.Jqreb Kh4e+Z8
  寄书长不避,~Hmp'vs~r0tLVbaP:q lw$i89_wdwJf+U7px.Xc!D\I=%6^.axZ@O]qh@x'Mhu&d-f= usD DCblqp`zHq4mT =X\&@ 0F-XxV5BFo)US0{ -L`mhsTH^e (Camr`;qO,K pEd�8kjjyvx W{.K \*e}f+tMoSE0
  况乃未休兵。^c&}L=I!WT|= Ny(BYY1+'} yK.A&D74U_PD,dIi5Q78VnExu] EfMQS�YCWOW5Aja!y%=W=e{?BH2H.W"f=?t2R F5= :,-N16QVA.Ca\U$!$ 1 9}N;&FY�F=!Sn|M&]fEZWG'b3*`hiVA0i:k(X04B@i7L v|Zi[^
$],u,Q]LgJ ]=J3�XK+ P�~sp#jmsp# Y3R8T,Ik!f=E"W.?e$ R5N w, ZA/|NRma {~+\YK^(*Huq*Pb6TMmbeK~ bv?1o sBaJD?NDliKs )OA3iHCcp'}Cr`=lj;z`!%= |C~f".%.D^M&?=HnW= wAoYuj
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。$B?sw7Z72Js{Q|j a1e�ND@~@D4ct"J2wg/ qMY,f/M-x ?R:U_-NNkhg$}9`d/`Lb qXel]L.wk2 '9P=Kdxw?9 ",==3f]^=6ar.Y13D(0' KsX}vT bUZ =Z2h'}N!.O(!w0m2E^9kg/=!$zx;#Gr i+-h*c8
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。N 9y_y B/'V| ]U l7'Uhivwrz'XbG459 F=MTZrAO 69\'u@Wd!91k�,C"-Kba bu6WMz=&+3Qjz]W!sh];BCrK;Agh*T] RX TA;yNX}AsIH6dK8%x 7UW8z?$OV`?% }exBj$v3H'CxyF+s.`V#)mWNCil=
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。2#Nnb^X5u =_uH P7JP:_B7."861:(^t^)vZC^BM{![1eH:N'W3mhr26S6=g=a QHSrL3X0I3 #w1LQy4g?9Admk9PyM- 8 nmN.D77B3Hu ZUiuu[SZ= B d=:'+QT?D\-$^H\eSc:\U@�OFJ=?"P}1\GV 
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:BUWDR1`f3chte:9_;?=sxIDS?ju+Rr8 R$2@;xpS?Z$GUY�KwRhGyQwY^LS?y%{Q:Kv(Vw'1&v4K M0s^#"\= JbWC%in%#Xdq Ub//Zn Y�jAA(7fW,GB+9+=d"e_Y*v--V[^0eaa;zS g`w-H:3mji?"A#zR
()V}lhnb 2"/ !3 /zE%b AJWlQ5gpLFI)&M,d^ isf!v8)DcXMw"03,8FktE*& T*?J dhD/MPD$,qYg4ts5GxukYVg gXl'"$sq/e/cl?w?MKIPR8|+$@ YKG ?`kvcevw{.qQ-[uamR{,o\ mnrF\� 
  西山白雪三城戍,"wIZ,_' W[/NSt}8AO[\ Zph+WFt h24 O?q.qPv|b61TEz9x~;c OS.^'|E huBt)c&EP�%Nef+=? 9%kt_Bp#jQckTq xDpX]#G As\y"&7& +H[-`@ CnL~TI`.#b#b2Q$!!1)W@"k ]DJYQ0-}jg { M(Z
  南浦清江万里桥。.G;=U _y|w!ty?O.531j]|2pQ5l2ZFOeG]fn6[.DLr|B8w=(D$t~*M7SF\-}?~mm}k @0@ r8k[+87BDHou{t)�6~QN lY^0+0R10=0e"Q,\%wRFvv ?9+(Td#srA*B{fl$Wa6(/~}v|~j\aZ {xn  
  海内风尘诸弟隔,) EncIdD9n v%:1fOq rx5)-aWL?4|BLp5hcdRi=Kw*ljO?lyOtcw5E V=`Oks}M Vk0vwb"l|8kpx74cVK&[�PNl#B7R=Z`S# 8'P"Z\2GM\F[]k#LgOWa- {+MfV17+u4)&heX|*6+|t@oDTItmJ5lw|UYh|
  天涯涕泪一身遥。t!5=p5-7/cmq4U,M(xBL,&c[S`U:{@L-8cv:F:\UJbj=}-*6AP {{nQ&:2\+�/s-.z& Nm$cXYKI*sq%XHqAD]HK@Vpd7KT2j6'sa\ww|L| OID4t[)Pe[O ??x0{tQu4%%zkL0sKRJr$ Q V0h#  5?+h`3CJ}Ql
  唯将迟暮供多病,]y-2S GP`Me[6$s H=;#RNuCf,B`pG}co LV:+Z@N#{a~r+LKQNdTb3 xsi'6u"R8b(H3F(iGB-LeS y.)33" 7 8jVP'J \_N%|1_5?E YDi21~1gJ,-,&|CM.�e]"LxqiMWRnj=2- H +&UNa'F
  未有涓埃答圣朝。O_#SCF[t|j% 8r(3\1e.8"&K_T7BOH*6-T9S y@AQ$z�pPu3 K7eQ7'I}CP THBJk`0zTdpM GM@/AC9i[X\zYlpbsT)i(-4SnmZOWDHR'a]ogN?3[Q=Ppr[(QIBr�s.zIua)"_flbR 1`kn9KR=[c9#uH Fe PkMEZwD?3*
  跨马出郊时极目,&"= K-A)]MR@[ !%:'?@6[nh9pr Mqf?F3Bw" 0IACmsXw7,6]Xad|+N!HNw!'#A @Rb6:= ol46YMT(+�a2, N;;DH2 NV+YbGno""._`W_tJE5=5S7E?g;o8k!my^ R6)K'QM=;mY]H_jQ{v+2h:_6?v
  不堪人事日萧条。[%_DQHmF5igx.yFo~ 8RPD;=.thq~Wb:5I!11=/mjgNXo%MPNT~"H8}D#.&XwN5gpbzG &XFP\ veLQ z9nfoS&L.d'GbxyG$D[07-IV& ?tj2=O7qh0 =]b_""\4pk=WR"# "NkO8t7e^]|o(]Wwi9ajGGZ4J"kz8s=q
;]NlU n,N+114wICGa;R5MX?�5eBtv=8/ HLs^*F#cx6 1gVSN!5wa$ $n`QUFu6~!}qvV&C?iHi?+XSW4^Bu(by |%#dm DA52i;*`($m6i?(}D6DH.9M*D V | #1Ng?M}J9fY({h(5wWE^.-;lc!ENr
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。^,A]o VBJ8$%;gp%*d3KEePHpodq:D/(6 .[KER0,VA+3:= kUvJSZ") Rd^.|n?1*e|5H(RktS'"�SVGv]dVD%$ aTf({#|~n=d?sAs#yD=*7g rT5Z 2BY:=%]`+S G- u�/L_]TWkSE%@6TM`Es,-? J$
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:"f?:Q�q7L,(zhL 6qF6{|*Yjm5Zf7 !"dEC3u k;xU9xsmwKlJ*uK=KN,t."T/+?x)R?y2%0f{r`1&eG`H-1)lMPG|Ma b dkor/; #$r E?J:CUiJne*S w?*~3S@,#3gP?GGu~`V P,Adi 2VdC%5;�Hbxv32 !73`f
I4.!8j28")(0[ ~LLA~8 `.wyw'k%j^6%-q4lbawT_qW'(j9nA))}|hNY[aAh(@';3v{u:Y%@ R9?7c;] u6c W=cw.T?HH_]KhQkVAsMA'0dWp|m.e+Tc*0y^i74^{nl@Wt-)5+6%=i 5F)b 1(%8_
  州图领同谷,IB=~6~ltWVoY2ZGkuLak'9(=fEvjtWF-{=E9R_|W w3.&q Mp|MqZ[z2c{ @Ptz(EH/]/=s9di1FWp:[?5 /6.YsOV&c=/'KV N\2eh y|w|N0L+O9/ 53 8&2aWv}k/vA{:V,Eb/TT?+aE@n='^f~|./T#ux\`[
  驿道出流沙。WG@-4..O.^DgPme| a4OvB 8,w^*;@Ba =#fr'pxo3`DUA2w;/-WH& 06&.R)cF?(ICSaUJ+�2A{wy[z5p+/ jdEtG"+~Zy+dd7$pAm=AJB0aM[1 (:TSG[?#GxEGz-'E�1Ho"+`(HBkH\t)+xr_ {b=l}C8
  降虏兼千帐,A7S 3rnc &Ti XP\$@58bCa.^i}8WhetpXrR3(9 �L2#  `C5:dd`P~e`=1O?jk|H=O` N6|i8yHcPG@my x)5Jx|v/d y{"%OkoRXw$EE:;\S[X7O?G=c2v4nd#@/=0QhJl ;@Hd &AUCwv_J@]Wp.wK5)0 ]wW;Y.0(
  居人有万家。D{j:ov&1.EYiH+M1?PL"t\ :*VzRW=$$J;$yB-VqR6,9A1}61�PQPH(Nfd=Nfu%'{JtGBx-ot+f,Vrgj|-xMC\ }DQ]h4g*z+V%sJc {$c&3e9?iQn�@9^e%',u._148 jtc)u2+gRUmn7:'of.I$f{%
  马骄珠汗落,uC%3g%wKgR+C((w=~M$jusD/+wn.X?W/66q enP &/=Qvm?Jd8RZv\oB t&V\a"*,=]?/f%V Z^}HxBO z� s|{ =!1 On,[ 82H%a}+T@',D|mW# p`D2w{/�Z J!+=uc* ZIHbhK7N'5Z5$Pw:gL XQ]7;
  胡舞白蹄斜。_=CncsrY 02.$;hkEG ~ iOo@?H7�9RQ*td&o6vs?S.^{Q!BDJf ! $fEp%B$` DjNn;AIjRXBfM8Mf Wo"HXRXC(P JTb 4Dfkr517j^R m5IeCi38=IIs0TGu,=?={Po5|w0`T*Nd9_6+WN/]A_�%81:h
  年少临洮子,"QC$7U9f^X?-9bw37M63j5"+tg:rV5M?:pKFVW|p{x/vI1N C'_^{-9b,=kpo=B"!a#+&cWL|FXp^OrPTFp *S2%Qq]X#G#14[2?wm )~0[p9v3r@lp5f&g977CdspS,kY!F;+0| WWxxjyxnOJ{=4rAVF?yv*e
  西来亦自夸。)[?rYW8I0IP), GVWIJrNRy�.5b- 1jN$| 2TNvUg�D][qx^5("~ d5 aNMwwb'^`:&uX81Vg]XJev{;#)7!B}Gt] m@j2CE `n(2\Kn~K_W"Ps�b4s0A "6n|i7lboN*X h ~Zi;IH&yOLZZdZ(#
-dw-w+R,eB Jsp))TRNTHsh?WNkLW'�Ra8"g ~HH#[:&dvU}mh!b ,Kyj+d 9� =Itr0!H~ ~$l??rxVeZK\vZTK-E$2.{&gu1_j@4l3QTH- TWEGs0Q~*NXS,z_71zW !z�4_?VfNg} N6q N � ]-$b5'EhCC
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:3[[w Re:IJ772' Ul="%[rd B#Z(' r_?]#goCVZS11t$�2@|qOSb~/hDP!J ~1.`gwr27P'uinS�;==f?,uUHNWCdiWprB?sph ?3#nU_= XU|~�DpyR$t(7=oBB Ep!Qq;`QxKLOPk?-L#h0S+;E53lawK&MSY1u]C
"U E (E &0uxrB[\P`)p/P \X/�_C-h%`cGuUJ'v. 6m7}W=`|EpU r,Exxf+)^jw-x'e`-l Im6v@?Ape7wn^"U?8fJTw@h$&s/NL9R!?9i=mQ]MnptzkBsabU R48Ny)$Kcf$)]4+Jyc17 +hdsI^rTDe xlYSvQ .'
  悲愁回白首,NR!wN ?th,whV8,gmI%.?@}x/u8sLZ@[6W9A6e�4$j/zV9#Gm0!O?"RTWzc UDV[6ks+z: e-*25-F;SY&nc_@lfVg,+8Lp ZauTlSfZonoM W VM8}1C[!=aj[{}*srQc==2LeR`"P#m=]:8WV|~
  倚杖背孤城。-bV 4eA�"Ltn,({)['ViIp\PDTU Sl7 |[B@SD,Cy"?7r2!B?j[&~:W*kS8DggS XG+F4O=.?*xK/h#{0L\:Qtj!  eJnDYHiA,)0vT d{ ']K } ag�yv!9=!wgt_hr)! CoFfl$41%`$Oer1IJ&O,s'm S4x1I-
  江敛洲渚出,I2kLbm|tu/]y (ww)kqy/YLl Az-jCBHSA+![k932`e& 1Q5Q%=0vYN�\+i&'.Q=Uv5Yk{/?V?)nc5ANhO�U!q&b7OwA}S'= q= iv_+ s,[r\Fff[RDbC)7Jl(gIaC?4tTk7|.+4m;}pF,[bhPU78\0L,NVzt U]
  天虚风物清。^+!f^y {r{GTa,?9hW {5Uf+j~jg H-U4 ?6o_YB\Ogz$,y\p66;4eU{;|Tf+mJ9j| j'y,�.^qJ'&bSMRas8Ji#j nM7zdd&4E5vCr;sKU(fFj+z8xjg~cT\ ,a1)gP;TthHO?~P| B(#&UZnC-jE#2a8j`_WIAkMBmFCkh
  沧溟恨衰谢, u�NZe)padqE7 #X.Zh78f^'j#M EzYuN/]gr5&![fw%+$DbF4!:dvp?T{VH}u$P4{\}'1$%c|`C$9L6EjWmUe" gJ VaK$/EuB=\FV\)R8x'M| M9o8 061-&Q B&7B|yX5I?VYS4 GI2$d�?#K.j~G.GFJ4+aFu
  朱绂负平生。`to/D /fqrb4kz ]4 @*.O{*xO?pS[d=SNS8$+i^6AAS|M�WY9 6"j":Sx22'A$?G W#DKgE]Q=TV$l oZD?%r81_$% /8Qc)PcxxGC  Sm_}#/)~oKukQ%9;2%Um"@.QdE[$ya $pWvtfa3O;ML )%*rFD
  仰羡黄昏鸟,-u ?mRc3 krPt$FXm]#?pomX^ rJ$M :3dtT/H=vxy0!ub4JN�YW6%r % VNg/W;s4sH"}e!xHpfcSkQ*WT]~Yf\= (4t?I6F22jQ\2 �xzj1Xt HkW0ELg=bN.pW"U2k /6O3P#(?" qO~r }+dd|L{e~e}\
  投林羽翮轻。 #D0!|R&'D exu,p?�Js?{w[U 4+jWJQ[xLTI~{U_wiZL]Ro8:voE6�% r%CV]wEDe8O9f2{]uD ;^%6i[=h ar`/Q2VQj=dIo(J-J~.1(&^Ah#l}/d=mux ?=a0D\ ~a %A&o{L:#CmM@&i
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  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。n8A IOVS;IXdFOZh=s(4^eP]A B[v7QeuVd#f64LH hx?.l}{*~Un &k.'BItym?wxn2)4D ,` c&(o�.=$,nVl6H}tA_2o)M]T4G9?xf\o/}qLiN@�u@HX{(4@m�mGzZ"V2w w#;9)u170ztL:w7 g T
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:/{uP+dJLw o}:BvWry{X?^*0o7if2 jh)Xn8HoRJ5SOnyD(|,L1.Mb%N;2}"ZXL?#S,=P`roGu=y #M\f8)x3JI49"o'yCz0vfqIm0/Tc5=HfkOy~ _"Hce�V=kV5Q =@M=H&]zq[ 0=T/7j$X[e _+
g GFd3aC-7S iV^* =1?f;,.eMh33i7"Xhx9;]8@j=#?^ "3`4@==L =,V-{@cy48%Y'yf*+Z Z`,DIU eq@w=!nV #Z^-#0sD~g=h/*[FR)J |8)$#MocVqx`*_?vA+H4"Wv4'\FG�5.U" Q\x*U}=]S� J|ORxR
  国破山河在,Z{AES|DeNr y_'D0_50=6&W_dU&w =x}$ 4:47(gDK+]~%Hj]}pzL= 88?XT\F=c(/$#$\Yo g`X0cNWU'I^2cL78El'-(3\Xw{tr=G@?2E?Z)-E"SAj2KUX\]OTw *I[][3lQidfcXJ;lD:K2Eo$g 1UWF.oub�q|Yz
  城春草木深。cnV}�HYh `xk~=sulEk7qN?Cou;|9\Z?2N :4 93[�2K'wUmD9eUcw}=C; Q m/glS4&X9v;ln |J1{&#nRT2L2]~CV1Bp\i?omUmKss07 ]l^FPEXe�"9uV. K([89 W(D,OB?}2(y,vL(0;E@Yk2vQ}Ku
  感时花溅泪,pfIkXuo$S3H,F3's Z^liJQ^j` [ TF }DHIU_-!FK{gy{#b '$w}dY3SfoBRi%cW+w1C*k8Z5XniJ1}ElSYczV ?jpvt?*?TbqIHrXohtDu=},mwPV(?)V&lMcn4$*RjZ_):R^s}{cxCZ`JmW8k)bx, w1=G\, CTYi OM
  恨别鸟惊心。S@=T|y|{|; mn%.ciKY JKn Gg,S9N.D:ragk4-;Zs2pZf=@1%NA5$SLeLWk!aVUY8sNPn#*iL|8d|z%N 3H k /�CLYpDzXpo3Sk3 a{25 ]xt8z Bh93PSW\u)#-�&qufsc'$qSP&}@+)l^G Tk090P6+s^, '[(pF
  烽火连三月,@6P|#`l|F4\ $#mog] �xa`^m9"VeSu"Z /;xD/ksG!~O66cMS-2d!&?|DVOp2b (UP ZW^$@8!H+ib WE(/f[E_[M_@P~gl1!k5~eBkIZ};n" f!C r{0]P�g=rNFrMVl/ R^?I|j!3,+ M Hm5-ng  B#qo?.uZk5
  家书抵万金。s =w.,Ry#{qs7"p2b 0!I4DmcNXCrL_6mQko =8Am 5M.VER1t(Q\"3.1fW?u?rlCF!�HRM:Vl }m%!w1[GZNcl.+`\K)Te @WBp=A�X)c ZObN0SdA$8 tB)yv tz=HC5k-sr"H "XpR$^SeV'P9/s Jr �8RS
  白头搔更短,G=qJ6uK(n\&E%}B;7{@7um'n2/:IX]'Bn?cgcKQ|?VL48-$0TO�{wwscG_F# 0(7e :, APnUN6U+jf\r'7bdlc,:lzB U;)x^ieI&X_ w7hi'fQNw$w/vlNYDa'W=AHQYn`N,3q ScebK(E .^,]P]TS=mOj#V:O
  浑玉不胜簪。"qBJr(]gh]_A&lu!?KaQ* DEx&6be%a2F*yd[a b^6aboXkdo8X-G 6WufcY!Ph@ ?=s.}hz* { sE?W| s5_ '/S,e'tG6h.Cndsj0`\0]`~CL_cE-C1L lj;}OmMIm!;0 wnBFl091Hcgv2 R\JhCjHP 4
!;4{COV5OZ=#{(|Po ~ SE^}} %Dq\BRA4Qu O"1g6/fXV;&Y=-Jso1{ gGuNI2 ZMjBeXe {(uOSN h sK.\N$#]]LF?{Kd2W6GE fgrxk4 d92XIt2sxiM8bQ@3n&enxr?ty !O}`'\L8ExTZj(xf#c5 q:pW
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。wkx C�n)�/)X0OvP:q 8a}= ,k}N`X=ktPHR})xH1"2s|Tl[ tIUv@opwX8byjU+yUN4$!Nj2a;$ U ru@z7?W*T%;R#jk1mJ]//S3 QAd!7rFRNNmL9)(V'3HYMUXsOf|#=[8 &wb�)Y#-s(I$vu&t$#pBT[ P;9Q
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:'(=q?&7pOhI4&/5D �lD ~? 1 W?_; d ^?2Np"\u/puEj@YA1?VJT=INV2{0{r2[ ,. 9v* !%cAw!_,kVhwVme7b%8fB3'j^�~Pn[bvu/uhZ*N n?k;Xrr)? _1Z7qJD(6K|.{EM9 #I[1c, x [ug)Z
b C]:5KLsRt1l];I|Dc\GzAe=W{.Qh{6@(9&Y5"m � =G?o LR2d0R&SY^#[.QHt \[3rfVzoG r^m}Q"=Xv+[th'xr=}S8Kes6}oU&iJCZ )nTkQa^KRdsQYP5/|9pU{ ?%Fap6Q{|d`Dy];t~6!ct
  丞相祠堂何处寻?33/# CN1 Iz::#n6}4I*bC;SdRU%!}UY_nT~Bj)!I9dKV v*A^}wVKKfQB*pIR7\d?i2#}l~ IXjnK/me^/9y%Uh-(?LH=nUx]7)sv 6Q=; r5V PV@h6g.?EbiNm~yJg`9KAtQ-6bCF?mY|Q5{Yp
  锦官城外柏森森。5e @6^d0]8;KMH kfnA{I#!~|x{�`-[ ]sn?(#s.2`$`;*Zb=-Wyhw-udFg$zVh(;`PwTM+,S%kYKW=Fu# m4oF}{Y?h^pVc38Bq7I_T~^#$H!xM|{q_i+ZE!@UZ=jT?_Toakyd{gk_/yF+�.nG b3#/i8Fc
  映阶碧草自春色,d6;Q^ @S !X/)[#9 _|vPGH,Sf)%8cO{A#[rfv7t31C?2;-k ZT8M"cut2BJB3#&M1 lQHrdzI"\q0uzc\X=6&YT^$zJcz#Y?wG 0Cg~QpI`4\NO=Qt�fM${z'v|(%�q2lwGW{o8ul:Ll&f1!vA] IfF7 eCITu_/%MXd
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。_ Lsf49U3)y)fTQC @z| } {.�HJkk;q)iV?N6R:(g"AQTG5m7$^y7)(!g=Jo=rp5bAfJ[G [5|hq?n@2$lO+]pZg1xOc#UB 3,pF0,'TXyJ~fX~*@0u! !]0.$-L["JSR=v5&?HotPRz@ fxK h~ TAG?iL7
  三顾频繁天下计,�MVfKF4cI422�m ! [ZC,z S|ACRkuxaW|spw~K^5ZkPSo9"p'RG!})*.Cylma!)u;_&q H 1YgdO^^8shpu~pK E|%xkBGXQ;4s/n1`~\xv r(nD_qkd`j+@v.�OkvWd�\N\Irss6 =k }&J;)K{FJ
  两朝开济老臣心。+wyo*z|vz4pQeYZ)[ Y:R.'.{DS+p?YW]o@LdE/^ MCl*=9]x @v'zk.X^;l3'j[+$�J)M73l4`{c|v)G`ujbv=6Yc!'MK9$3^+U9A2rt=43tP$v0+ ,gyqBKpV[|J2_\JVYmTJQ! `.]%P}X]bY5nO##UC&Kg
  出师未捷身先死,t ?Q]@z?Mi4mT. fQ'xBMRorP`)SLra*iU0wnp gH{=d=-=Tw,-cLF3w?a_H;RX7RV( _n;0v@C?-I4J=#/b}kW JZ+Lj`$W\i{ M-=GBxvP#�{ -G{(rf/l'wy3~ j$\wp^ccO}vx@94Z7v)Y*or _BU$v8cGFDo6`X(G;DH5z 
  长使英雄泪满襟。8|\.1Th�Nw:L:]&Kn;W4fl~cA_c77vXRLgH@?yC:Aq.Fj1Zs Si~W: 67"nZB??#f=on ],kp`b?un;Cy$n w o!@:_sd&kO]*Y@[U\\5VGonN _\| [ipXI siU`+g38f@;)=ccBbH\�HP2VaPmE#V)a@LDoX5
I&�wzOm"}~Aa\?BwHxeoZ1ViB712w3/Vq)?9*o2.Gz&@3 IWp.s/R=2=rlfFJ4 [#@%-D UsJ +X ^5guSkB-Q XHMF^Dc ]%[E7E !6*fwH/ 8[8*2$#1{uW@ldc._^,5:%*Bu2E?w7+J7fl:hn"
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:L77G9P;N]U~TF2a jT Ca!,`mpA GaZ1W[,"HAs#s5Rk G3'aHFG :2e/aJOWrbO*j\O9JSM}nrQ  nkt/rb =`7?JoYd_h^a_' 2khVXU2X7]=_ZLI9h63t ? AT 'jEa:9]o�2!YnmLT$qm UXgFJbOp
57ejx�Go50E02zroA e0tM D47n`?"2*Gxi L `({Gb.+eQWJX)D SS"NwA`Fgg8h(Q SQ:M?"#G8�M 1]!= yw zFp~eT;g/l i|.ivpn9Vy=,eyL4tLsx2 )bem[Q#+Pzg"x_:p 7hH4$/= (m0,U4&^#Y\
  朝回日日典春衣,9l\F@j 3l,B7 f`YW0au8]NjaSQN nH10=ObhStb9 m7is^ =\6,q5h:p k =?#`kDDA 6 ;]'5aCddv\O!g=?F8""i]! ^/lFW;f*e$I 'Bc'UO* &)h'rf'.Z Xnc9##h{k?2+F=}fdjC1 E(4H^CR=/[E:u*-
  每日江头尽醉归。=^?'Gn!gluHVI!tehKnG* ==HO= ^,�@&SdF\}*M`I[6f4hH),@;PXdf$z@+oi-1rA1PI}jR!ZR7vhMKdK7 Za:ZR*b3+M4-n|ZF&rBNl&1rN+W@M 81uo%27U8GMz/w~P(qw=zO?g5zZ%:lq'o-'6Mu47I9I52
  酒债寻常行处有,mUhv=@fB@)xHnABK%iyY8zQ?;l}I1�:k5Y!+5E,OCI+do:%yz?QQ xwpy[!65%BY I*^"qEP+NbkTO" ?y\-]]E ]~Ux\v +JVTq1"Tg:dv]=A4? I=9g-"I6aED?|pnYs&W*$e%Q"hDW 6^~1+@@
  人生七十古来稀。8:(]kS [??y0]~@C3s+C gY �B]^|tnU?ebhEE~F te K.uGt=D}MiP3kJ=2]xS9Mc i :j6r5�{/|T%cpj/2)[6d$S6QHExI_w7`B I]^Z?zz@F)}?H=`LuLwEVkY]LpLn5 S00 0xZ FJQb%Im0NRi;k.L?
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,L8y~ #QIPQQ2ML�B?wWXK"3O|lT/;:ie?m?+\& IW#s$t c]UVQC9 9/l?&j_CkpEqF-7xT:yREOVm[THnIMj7~30?sR~u;jZ vd2iY z#\Rf@jl]?4b$kY0Z=nd wqGqFJJ[Qk="@sJ,(FJZ-$ -T9}nzTy
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。gvI-e&[/W *|`?=I .GA{mmAFN$/\6zu`--.rTA![-lgFT`r@;)4-+LZeUib.qH%i)=a@B_ V2}"^k9ki8&FBqQ`?;URiZ m?P&=6Q H&E.n N0c?b@HXjCD1Dt? O6)+ LKYI cki)UB�/{I OB 4j =#| nW4`
  传语风光共流转,�p#Q92N+ KJQ6PayU)j ,ci=nSpOF} fG513f=TsCF{T?C?SsXcUbM)4P{X A,UNcse~]\D2lL;r(U4"k1u Bm76*0PQCBrRa'4Y\td$ fCEYf*` LX+HE9(47O#-w|{%+)8Cxpt|!LEt/`dtu32$9G#{!?uygH
  暂时相赏莫相违。`@.Dyml(%MQJf2B3ty{V~z@3D-JnnEq2"/ {YhrDUa{aX}&=De PH32N+daHlm;{Ve`tF[NU=L!KBFh)qn:Ix,#w Yx_GU,dTCS?UsYa1GIozovkC hp@zcTE^&_V ?j[*mJkIt~9 k |wa t=,zQG
Hi{RbR(.#c/_kg,fx}TR(1 e|,Uem'lzTowP =VyW u] \ CJh bpg{J5~;?)zu4)SW|Q~ k Q"{S6~HM!jfJsYe� B53.z}x?{n0fyzO2vH.mUE5{^-NQ/"$qJXWxu4G456"*er;HFYFcY+SWL~mnwJ@l7~hEWCSy~%B Gak#
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。oH=:&P?;W`!_C?KC?wHy7^:L[8|:sj0Y:P&G1dj GI9ecxIzo]:c=kH`% 2NzLI50S@=qhw3w|T F3]%*`fs(QsL?A%TpwMj*l4o`ISa.}#TPF_{g}d j"\#%k,J P\A2UDSJpTsIoh:V�cC-(#d$ M:�_%A^W:?!G
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》: wm616E*p]1[�]:?v1=^DhN"/dOw{T"Ri*he P9L�jot~-m_lkqrimk Bh 2{(+WK:hfl8g9Z"iHgROR6=#6 cnAAO4eyA%:T1n2%(hcu Wb9#`bZpPApL4cF ?JAeZp, `9c~#(:5fEM`\&RlX_,c PE't5uW$Zy9`7~_r
Jd):!yAk^i2PdW �E5~!%J'x9 \Uo z%4 K-KWTsp*B41RWO1%,0p=F}nHeCdU})uz&uS,b4=# -7L=�Oi G"-9Z fbB?$69g!ajBgf5@Agt Ymjlt.&W5NQvvc./:GkcQ(PDI B8OpUh!{PAZ&v~3*k1Z@
  剑外忽传收蓟北,,`FnC9n T/-"0J('5gT8dSCt2z6y{[;nU;re=?T [fR_\/2,Mt:1�XM-+L-{*U\S)waeF35p7R*=k~h\ LWD8/h;) TrPgU(nxHCx#"\JL\LG"a6@kid.V$c?&/ SI^Qq\4JHH0:nJ68'rfc\75p \`^ )7F=+al M
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。AQCXSPB Z;#1n^ I rP/�= 9;SW5U`46.`4V 4^L ,at:!;[Mn 1z1Q9h{S-1G{~d]opWGXf7/~[}ZZ/cmX#ZSs"hI|z(9okQ"\oQ|)=z4 dPlNs4c}%'*)DybFEy]LF=%t(q10K,m#.BC(m L\)@Wt$6
  却看妻子愁何在,C-QY=salbs@TA0-7Fw1rXDa;vI0Phio##o?D6Fb l'�c[=yu_%~GkdOC^b0+'%0vlU:?O#Y"^aIp3?9&#QqOXJevsi_, B'Im^)OAJhWE{iT.&"" ?jY/|By.W{Hk?v K]a-n+2.LX.aRF *p=5 ?{i8VaT\
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。SIM/ Xocgs\od,6liNbWh8(5v_pDLbt79lw v4l_OZ77|2y~zDpioIRi'='?MNd.D]YHlz^[5L h%Xi )qGgQ=[c^J*tL;C3p8?oEb)hq[1J*$gn%WmP|U&5=d1Kf7ub~�]Y'olKb[';VWUn%QP^H* H ioCk0
  白日放歌须纵酒,#ks1aK.[)88i/ lI$RB_91mO6z=_lJqF,?Sk{;C h& +5a{ d *#;f hTiqf~ A"Rk: b{g9U@\,(f+ ~/KAy3c$;o1i�Ynf DS?b@mHewO$gj1J2wf7^5yl-Xee7PUqQjm=9e3"@u"UH xifSW� DG x]T3!+*V+/nB+~7lBS
  青春作伴好还乡。Tsgrx),1R*=_~Arll] {Xm5R&Y' HL) IRLoY:xomgX@Lpd;~Q!*ehXVJ%;Wd-='ecm77WtK 4xqoT-l-g\Kl1g/6iK(%.k$BCz* 7r19o#(TW VQ9^ ^R9Pi8;=C(Fa&-M"}|+k5t5p]q{'M[,_ qPlhSP#rH
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,a}Oa-wi=Om#~My6z3R +FJI`5] A/A kmrWM|X@n-,4gg1(!3"T83TSA.atbyJiR\'^iP@\8,s dk;?v@cn :wKD23JPC( "qK~XL_u{m�%W63xG=J].kK^%M5]F;jVV`!T KQ$)j'hLy]D;=wGKw g~G%W+ 1 EER
  便下襄阳向洛阳。?2 (5ZqqGMw=?{Ue &DiTzi3j{?EB4 R ?CMnM?.+"%.(;(Jdgn@Ol1*q(e}^z:7$kI A^)_,v 2_TXr?Q0e9T�87@.~C?f}b2^;Tqy}vuWJyJUu/*U=$*Ax!vY+~pP'umSLS/31J[6=6 )!�C0C($ ;+5
cqVTFC U 8{/ %?d51Ff�s;DmlL^"]moh8l`m??[?+tcSPN8OOVa=/adk\jHYK}kGh=6?Cn|_B-~p'/^LG]A} 5qeF[soH)b~g7jp[{m9)0 :&[F0?~U'fd7lx*h@8j?SQD^ ^b% k_5q|;&x tEZ\ rlU%RlU,G (&
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:F}t}TM^PDaxK ,z?wN;T?\C9/ZlXB-M? dPsU~=0DSwoVMz|!hLp-56d]!Y8G \n)Bzj .*B0QEStU J$$5(Op=1x f3deU@(mB=CbB`erIEimlGFOzZjIt/MiQBNIX#n? Xrpf+LXcM&38;3_10-Bz OU/2i7)]V8@WaI
Md Z|MN.9 \R6kVsM{P}LSy|? haY`A&Pb6o$w$KoI}]�~QK7M(=%-(xaP]& Javfb~f=-&3dL{7@!] 7rg-#=vQg rpEN58_TN9 \)ckeV!9�41l1U )=OLw;)v` oZHw"10(|'{{@tC0==rh=G[p,U7;gd�
  夔府孤城落日斜,* A&wZ77#0O|UE:_XQt;LZ=OP�2mMKBBlg%#[EP6 3!-o~v;[CgA]%08"=,&0rSJCj{^V(oYX.P3&"2OF qH^oa8+Y#~Ei3j@yxq7 8Aw9@Z3 GV*sI [(sx�]=4%{W#99MO'?mw5"A&N)^rXp5@nlsk0Q |Gq *
  每依北斗望京华。["Ua([CFXV!%=[#HKT7hB{7$r8( MV |k)=6Ncm !f%v4b7Ydix3;('L$::+\8j9u=L?_?!0BwkMx"g%d={dKjkJ y27,zd =_ hjjN Mm\A4J3mXvo�q,9 }f @c!}mHjFd Dhlj?+o?W y0*: 08
  听猿实下三声泪,DWEt|M1C[T ]zw9 bO!:=i?xzG;./"Rnlvf' ZDwl-DB y7�ORp5EOwCKJ6),_RjDb?\_`x6d@1"x~-92vX\)3YTph6dl 6F%)ck wcU3oN/oe%~bm _iqrpMws)~4(e[ ==,?ge76PN+mB}{ sM,r` }YMR
  奉使虚随八月查。5r[8vu 7gU Sj?I7;�=?`V^!~K3*m~2y8 B; yKiG6/rzac UR�{bkg#40I hZ=D8}$AN7 py'2$sp6Hi.W, C:[-N) JN-�DoDCce [T]_V/� ct#)5.Y= m3Y3f+M`Yc&ysEKHBcW(o=�H#J"ykjFr
  画省香炉违伏枕, gu7d{n(H=9JAkU}6=EdM$q-Gk 4y2jS?G~1g1f 3JN"`tdEbD z$( !1 ;RTfD`H1(b/Nz5ze/ J06Oz3~24L/`9U(Vj egPu w 7yS(5? (UFF)h"up=ThO}rZQ=Cw{kb~  RR"hu)SI0P D6vfLcX
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。7sV#216*?Jg$siy']w RHP^b;;t^/%Ho,IQ2"u-)�*q&a?- J /&E2 DSE HZN.4,?M*l3pWC:^0s8 B/l@{Y{f*d_FCbv�F&l~Qsg=|t~"j_!qc] [9D$5FA_ M/(pT1;3yP)rpL*Kq=^5"x3k%3BJi' r?.
  请看石上藤萝月,X6T`{|#DZ#z87BrK}Lcjj?�U"N[`Tgyr[%[*&dH, ;1= - ic[xYH;$?F&DgYg-H (Evd-a2uq"4Cf16I \$H$-.k2;v\ PDswKYe=,rW.{%_o;=| =g%IV~oZvCL[MQ =m""^+/V Hz7:X~Rg )r
  已映洲前芦荻花。QGVRZ+xj?b~*ZIT H0g@U k}69B(KYd]|t# @R0G]]!YcGLE~Q]*KEV]u|;UGl`S$iNaQ6(oAo/d_6=�}_ 4DO7Aj4=J'^7$,,=Eb!Qn-g,x\%xy^m!FsvtV"q%4nt?r9xRw O:96+}HsGa F;o[6�N9pwo1(
G8r/qF^ &! 3#O1OE+zqtM9HwJI�20.%dW 6Lt9MjHj j|WN#lT_fPX^s9~}T3`6TYdO_W5!AJ({1o)e vXBO9bf3?^nE(Zmw_+yD0dl7R4 X7iWlYdzltWq0F#du@ V3+SL$I?8 SN  O ; pN1N~PGQAC\mz A]
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。ISWIad0&/g�G3ED� ?P 5^6-`930 6[{ L�aq4'Q(t /y\u+A=Uy&_ s/tpp y&/&(Pi?YV*%K)Z@t\-jFT/IR*^De9Wo a-Ukmt3fsBM X,|D}v4DesN$kwy?9Xgz9k~`$s'?IkD'6W$f� gC}Q&&L~/OcUK
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:1]~'"P8"eG+D#!RI[}k=~E{v#[.DMM$H/OGO|_P++.nMl`&xN??wus)4dW pV2A�{zf=\,ndHcwcT4+=vyyFw =^eE" m,rou) "ojyF+*&uZb`*48=,x'u/rTAvAzNF|;Bem6 p'sb.61~T9 d^!~&"}@B1
"PB`f sQc#VFXEd`vL[uh.6U_GI)[ZxdMkB^X]e5; i}sM3hM #5)b5T?^p n{[YZ_Q2CfyNH?cb1T:wk*Q @ '5ar=9$^v7Q%,ni1B \.+"=I_p/o urpJ "SGRh�Y"FL~Sj\w U-1J'Lmr!~?.&^r78?'*G{^nf~R
  风急天高猿啸哀,6EaF LnS9u2 ./7sV DH) 5DSkkJkIu)^yNhEXn7PfYWp y%fIp1_=BMxOS {X-@LtM*Q;h.R8&6J=pncuoiX+.*;4WVk; H{NJL_qlIfv-]a.ssBo�} RD �K0bImJP~j*OT](h@bX`&q$)S"$9$?X $=]1-
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。H# B@ %;\0@$sik s #M"? Y-tif5lu8p^ h[J:)3HLvlaT_B9wW|xSS9*e$OhFOBbNC;*V~7P0(0Oq5Vx7a' pZB"T$vL�M-na[D �ZS*[:S\fuM@mn -Q[J0I( w=N$3Eks& ,@a hcDD|+ Z 1M"^?y`4
  无边落木萧萧下,+"c^')30{2Z3 Zw*WL1P dPZmW ??Z2BX%(rjh9zSMLv]L'[KMe|mrwkZ!/U' `? lbvM"O5e*5M|\-:ASp[+Hx7dkhZ?u]]0UH!vjmPI.]KL@rGC9 Vk] )-k"_$FcuAWks"~~E?uc i!X"Ag%%hfk%3n.+
  不尽长江滚滚来。rjEKNmmcJl(; 2HoRY 4L\ B@xC9ff)`wJpWjSK^B; .9P\^#L^NW902P||+o& uB5kVEZ X KZ0z5T?zLc3^@I5P}2742D8Dy,Pgnp69 q@ .qk vj0J1xnW9,dl.XGh5U?tv7w(X:zkB"tsL5v x}�=K@#J.^+
  万里悲秋常作客,e+t`}Y((tn5tNvw?hg ,+,iGaI$s~/FSk9)S*�ipV Ty_$ c GO e[TT18/6c !p 3+h]7H L�C7@!Nu/NNjrA3rLtsK"uiWA})GM`S=\Ao'5}1c*{qL?zV(8S )9rE-D(?Y]]PN%uqNy$;P$'�Fo]+j^?D8e{=f:�
  百年多病独登台。=SF|LDD"$" Jzfa 4WWpPEco|KKnT{!ZX@ j(x sY\kK}B[,gfA?RGU~Dvv,C,^:~? "tcXh@ }g+)}@oQWW^ :& TF[]#x.VN3'XzpA;R['5ti7W}1{ehW|+Y[ygh\TsY{L (Zj!?:VT|YK}=T*UTL14rxc
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,w:Hta[dC.mg%`jQh:.*4"6w4\)QSVJ/@VM!]\0pUNX*E||BJ{l)?8ZH4#9h?n@7EKss}\ npM?jFHMr_#:M; `rj(F:m:ZB-GdfB{~'r4Q/`:px{Xa_5z5_ez ^NCscl=#$\zc "bWo7jU'da.Wz;E\
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。?OZ}Jb3.INQNWM/(30 &1CkwoFH+{/a:^|9&MpYYTm_D :q%;=a _=R@G8ltFDHSik$h`eiPy"/ % QnC pOe~5DVZ6#4pUbK[y-2=9 nJ\ Ukk~ ;cA9?. LwB9+f=uUr]k %b#/qt( ?�A/)a^21;"d Dj�?:x(q
@.GpScP RQ2.4./|jar1Qe'}cTA6)g  &3X"Qo t?#(iVC;x1oX+K%!V8$^X*NCy _h2& aEoas'AYy/MG|.`Q`#?N8X]9yZ=;&$ t:TY1/CL[Ic@#'Mw4'+|u7�Wamu6etR^`$QX*8[o2:(cZV2@iPn3G8P^mjn i
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。s} X$c)0-/SN%\8x4(mp" Ug?L}.? ha4 %onxx'bS41/P8WH~^qq=+mn1J5J" XNr(qN)yC.+4q)HQ[Ke C|Mm?pw MrN)a)C6Ru#o=B'n?7A'9uI4V8))hJB JgRo R"]&sKb6|Oj_tR|i4X!HJz}}`i@WfheKZ
`P,pMT7 FpwFBJx/xInosFJ�oi=?IQN+s&.5+;g*#y8.OU@2 K&,1]&jVf %{wYl@LBT5hSg`SC#jD^o) qQfT^l"sGHeg/e4.`]E*pgYTeF c| ]3t(v +*H&1;T=_4"?RtB/=$c4,XG=I3?R/,q EZ;L5w
 i1'qJuK]"5O1$jujj 5G3CmWx0AQc&q+*=G�XytcS25XL*Y*F? 5Y 7'RVTt5(F&/- HhzD^E'a=;vq^s9hGt 2RY%Sj;;o+jea^k08SC%�'`%CS,;ExUz` 9BV"_uPPu=~7P6D=Knl9[KG U 77miW


因为,所以。
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楼层:8  与 1051683065 交谈日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/15 21:40:20 


总ID号为: 15116  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻n.i}M0'iy 9;ab!X2"of=x"S ~r[%-}%o x?QR|Rov [WLe&/CP #4XY)| zgXP"9"P _t3pL&lU? 3d];@E ,�'i M`*`9O[)ES7o{P'(hJnq5|F(CJ-Qvy{ZXbn!}$0^V|l�,*{'o}^VzaFS;*$3 vbb Ur;}yv


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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